The cost of integrating hepatitis B virus vaccine into national immunization programmes: a case study from Addis Ababa
UNSPECIFIED. (2000) The cost of integrating hepatitis B virus vaccine into national immunization programmes: a case study from Addis Ababa. HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING, 15 (4). pp. 408-416. ISSN 0268-1080Full text not available from this repository.
National programmes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination are recommended by the World Health Organization for all countries. Countries suffering the highest burden of HBV disease are those most needy of universal vaccination, but are frequently of very low income and resources for health care are scarce. The introduction of HBV vaccination would inevitably stretch these resources further even with support of donor agencies. Thus an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of HBV vaccination is desirable to assist in decision making about resource allocation. We describe here a method for estimating the additional costs of introducing HBV vaccination into the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) at a national level. Of fundamental importance is that this method enables costs to be assessed prior to the introduction of vaccination. We illustrate the method using a study carried out at the sub-national level, in the city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, but which can be expanded countrywide. The method, in brief, involved the use of a number of questionnaires which could be used to estimate the costs associated with the EPI programme from a large sample of the static clinics as well as from central sources. Since unit costs were collected along with the quantities of resources used and estimates of the capacity used for certain facilities (such as refrigerators), the additional cost of introducing HBV vaccine could be estimated largely by extrapolation of the resources used in vaccinating against diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus vaccine (which, similar to HBV vaccine, requires three doses). The estimation of costs is only part of the information required to make decisions on resource allocation, and should be used in association with measures of the burden of disease due to the infection in the community and effectiveness of the control programme at reducing this burden. The prediction of the tatter, based upon a sound epidemiological understanding of the infection, is the subject of a forthcoming paper.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Subjects:||H Social Sciences > HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare|
|Journal or Publication Title:||HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING|
|Publisher:||OXFORD UNIV PRESS|
|Number of Pages:||9|
|Page Range:||pp. 408-416|
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