No pills for poor people? Understanding the disembowelment of India’s patent regime
Rangnekar, Dwijen (2005) No pills for poor people? Understanding the disembowelment of India’s patent regime. Working Paper. University of Warwick. Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation, Coventry.
WRAP_Rangnekar_wp17605.pdf - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
Official URL: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/csgr/research/wo...
The recent amendment to the Patent Act, 1970 brings India into full compliance with its obligations under the TRIPs Agreement, in particular allowing for product patents in the area of pharmaceuticals and agrichemicals. This amendment, the third to the 1970 Act, was characterised by a relatively muted rhetoric and a remarkable level of shared consensus amongst campaigners and critics. Focusing largely on domestic compulsions, as opposed to the global, the paper explores whether the shared consensus sets too narrow an agenda for patent reform. The paper suggests that the limits to implementing TRIPs are equally on account of ambivalence within the government with respect to intellectual property and the changing self- interest of sections of Indian pharma. Thus, despite a favourable international climate in the area of intellectual property (read Seattle, Cancun and Doha), the patent reform in India has been doubly constrained by the narrow agenda and domestic factors.
|Item Type:||Working or Discussion Paper (Working Paper)|
|Subjects:||J Political Science > JZ International relations
H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor
K Law > K Law (General)
|Divisions:||Faculty of Social Sciences > Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (1994), Patent laws and legislation -- India, Pharmaceutical industry -- India, Drugs -- Law and legislation -- India, Globalization -- India|
|Series Name:||Working papers (University of Warwick. Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation)|
|Publisher:||University of Warwick. Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation|
|Place of Publication:||Coventry|
|Number of Pages:||23|
|Status:||Not Peer Reviewed|
|Access rights to Published version:||Open Access|
|References:||Abbott, FM (2002): “The TRIPs agreement, access to medicines, and the WTO Doha ministerial conference”, Journal of World Intellectual Property, 5(1), pp15-52. Abbott, FM, Amy Kapczynski and TN Srinivasan (2005): The draft patent law, The Hindu, 12 March. Available at www.hinduonnet.com; last accessed 7 April 2005. Agnell, M. (2004): The truth about the drug companies, New York Review of Books, 51(12), 15 July. Available at www.nybooks.com; last accessed 4 July 2004. Amin, S. (1990): Delinking: Towards a Polycentric World, Zed Books, London Anon. (1998): Patent problem, The Pioneer, 19 December. Anon. (2001a) Dr Anji Reddy becomes new president of Indian Pharmaceutical Alliance, Pharmabiz.com, 1 October. Available at www.pharmabiz.com; last accessed 7 April 2005. Anon. (2001b): US, Brazil withdraw HIV/AIDS dispute from WTO litigation, 25 June. Available at http://usinfo.state.gov/topical/econ/group8/summit01/wwwh01062512.html; last accessed 30 June 2001. Anon. (2001c): Re-thinking trips in the WTO: NGOs demand review and reform of TRIPS at Doha Ministerial Conference, Joint NGO statement, 5 November. Available at http://www.twnside.org.sg/title/joint5.htm; last accessed 26 March 2005. Anon., (2001d): Notes of Dissent, The Patents (Second Amendment) Bill, 1999 – Report of the Joint Committee (2001), Parliament of India. Anon., (2005a): India’s choice, New York Times, 18 January. Available at www.nytimes.com; last accessed 7 April 2005. Anon., (2005b): India’s crackdown on fakes, Wall Street Journal, 24 March. Anon. (2005c): AIDS drugs threatened, New York Times, 5 March. Available at www.nytimes.com; last accessed 7 April 2005. Anon., (2005d): A confusing patent law for India, Economic and Political Weekly, 16 April. Ayyangar, Justice N. Rajagopala (1959): Report on the Revision of the Patent Law, New Delhi Bagchi, AK, P. Banerjee, and PK Bhattacharya (1984): Indian patents and its relation to technological development in India – A preliminary investigation, Economic and Political Weekly, 19(7): 287- 304. van den Belt, H. and A. Rip (1994) ‘The Nelson-Winter-Dosi model and synthetic dye chemistry’ in W. E. Bijker, T. P. Hughes and T. Pinch (ed) The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology (MIT Press, Cambridge) pp. 135-158. Bidwai, P. (1995): One step forward, many steps back: Dismemberment of India’s National Drug Policy, Development Dialogue, 1, pp193-222. Bond, P. (1999): Globalisation, pharmaceutical pricing and South African health policy: Managing confrontation with US firms and politicians’, International Journal of Health Services, 29(4). Chakravarti, AK (1998): Protecting proprietary and security rights in cyberspace: Initiatives in India, paper presented at Info-ethics ’98, UNESCO. Available at http://www.unesco.org/webworld/infoethics_2/eng/papers/paper_15.htm; last accessed 27 March 2005. Chaudhuri, S. (2002): TRIPs Agreement and amendment of Patents Act in India, Economic and Political Weekly, August 10. Comanor, J. (1986): The political economy of the pharmaceutical industry, Journal of Economic Literature, 24 Commission on Intellectual Property Right (CIPR) (2002): Report on visit to India, 29-31 August 2001; available at www.iprcommission.org; last accessed 23 March 2002. Commission on Intellectual Property Rights (2001): Notes on the India field-trip. Available at www.iprcommission.org; last accessed 14 April 2002. Commission on Intellectual Property Rights (2002): Integrating Intellectual Property Rights and Development Policy, CIPR, London. Dhar, B and C. Niranjan Rao (2005a): Third amendment of the Indian Patents Act, 10 January. Available at www.ased.org; last accessed 31 January 2005. Dhar, B. and C. Niranjan Rao (2005b): Reflections on a TRIPs-Compliant law, Economic and Political Weekly, 9 April. Available at www.epw.org.in; last accessed 20 April 2005. Drahos, P. (1995): Global Intellectual Property Rights in information: The Story of TRIPS at the GATT”, Prometheus, 13(1): 6-19. Escobar, A. (1995): Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World, Princeton University Press, New Jersey. Gambardella, A. L. Orsenigo et al. (2000): Global Competitiveness in Pharmaceuticals – A European Perspective. Directorate General Enterprise of the European Commission, Brussels. Gehl Sampath, Padmashree (2005): Economic aspects of access to medicine after 2005: Product patent protection and emerging firm strategies in the Indian pharmaceutical industry. Paper commissioned by the CIPIH, World Health Organisation Gopalkumar, KM and Tahir Amin (2005): Patents (Amendment) Bill 2005: A critique, Economic and Political Weekly, 9 April. Available at www.epw.org.in; last acceded 20 April 2005. Hegde, VG (2005): India and the international patent system, in Helfer, L. (2004): Regime shifting: The TRIPs Agreement and new dynamics of international intellectual property lawmaking, The Yale Journal of International Law, 29(1), pp1-83. Joint action committee against amendment of the Indian Patent Act (2004): Declaration, 29 December. Available at www.cptech.org; last accessed 26 March 2005. Joseph, M. (2001): Indian CIPRO copies don’t pay off, Wired News, 8 November. Available at www.wired.com/news/medtech/0,1286,48153,00.html; last accessed 27 March 2005. Katrak, H. (2004): The Indian pharmaceutical industry and consumer welfare: Prospects under the TRIPs Regime, in H. Katrak and R. Strange, eds. The WTO and Developing Countries, pp165-184. Palgrave-Macmillan, London. Krishna Iyer, VV (2000): GATT, TRIPs and patent law, The Hindu, 11 September. Kumar, N. (2002): Intellectual property rights, technology and economic development: experiences of Asian countries, CIPR Study Paper 1b, Commission on Intellectual Property Rights, London. Available at www.iprcommission.org. Lanjouw, J. (1998): The introduction of pharmaceutical product patents in India: ‘Heartless exploitation of the poor and suffering’? NBER Working Paper No. 6366. Matthews, D. (2004): Is history repeating itself? The outcome of negotiations on access to medicines, the HIV/AIDS pandemic and intellectual property rights in the World Trade Organisation, Law, Social Justice & Global Development Journal (LGD). Available at http://elj.warwick.ac.uk/global/issue/2004-1/matthews.html; last accessed 22 February 2005. Murlidharan, S. (1998): Patent capitulation, Frontline, 18 December. Narrain, S. (2005): The Glivec case, Frontline, 22 April. Nath, K. (2004): Statement on the Ordinance relating to Patents (Third) Amendment, 28 December. Available at www.cptech.org; last accessed 30 March 2005. NIHCM (2002): Changing Patterns of Pharmaceutical Innovation, NIHCM. Available at http://www.nihcm.org/innovations.pdf; last accessed 20 January 2005. Patel, SJ (1974): The patent system and the third world, World Development, 22(9). Patel, SJ (1989): Intellectual Property Rights in the Uruguay Round: A disaster for the South?” Economic and Political Weekly, XXIV(18): 978-93. Penrose, E. (1973): International patenting and the less developed countries, Economic Journal, 83. PhRMA (2002): ‘Special 301’ Submission of PhRMA for the "Special 301" Report on Intellectual Property Barriers, 12 September. Available at http://www.phrma.org/international/special301/india.cfm; last accessed 27 March 2005. Press Information Bureau (2005): Important changes incorporated in the Patents (Amendment) Bill 2005, 23 March. Available at http://pib.nic.in; last accessed 26 March 2005. Punj, B. (2005): Patent debate: An unhealthy plan for the poor, The Indian Express, 18 February. Available at www.indianexpress.com; last accessed 21 March 2005. Raghvan, Chakravarti (1990): Recolonization: GATT, the Uruguay Round and the Third World, Third World Network, Penang. Rajkumar, R., A. Kapczynski, and A. Prabhala (2004): A bitter pill for aam admi, Outlook, 27 December. Ramachandran, R. (1999): Disquiet over a new regime, Frontline, 1 January. Rangnekar, D. (1998): This patent bill won’t please WTO, The Economic Times, 28 December. Rangnekar, D. (2002): Plant breeding in an era of privatisation: reflections on transformations in the Indian seed industry, in Frank-Jurgen Richter and Parthasarathi Banerjee, ed., The Knowledge Economy in India, Palgrave Macmillan, London, 130-148. Reichman, JH (2000): From free riders to fair followers: Global competition under the TRIPs Agreement, NYU Journal of International Law and Policy, 29(11). Sandhya, GD and S. Visalakshi (2000): R&D capability and alliance formation in the pharmaceutical industry in India, Science and Public Policy, 27(2), pp109-121. Sardana, S. (2004): Govt. probes over-pricing of generic drugs, The Indian Express, 28 July. Available at www.indianexpress.com; last accessed 7 April 2005. Sell, S. (1998): Power and Ideas: North-South Politics of Intellectual Property and Antitrust. SUNY, New York. Sell, S. and A. Prakash (2004): Using ideas strategically: The contest between business and NGO networks in intellectual property rights, International Studies Quarterly, 48: 143-75. Sengupta, A. (2004): Suggestions for Patents (Third) Amendment Bill to Amendment the Indian Patents Act 1970, available at www.phmovement.org/india; last accessed 31 January 2005. Sengupta, A. (2005): Changes in the new patents bill, 22 March. Available at www.cptech.org; last accessed 26 March 2005. Shankar, D. (2002): India, the pharmaceutical industry and the validity of TRIPs, Journal of World Intellectual Property, 5(3), pp.315-371. Sridhar, V. and S. Narrain (2005): A tempered patents regime, Frontline, 22 April, pp28-32. Srinivasan, S. (1999): How many aspirins to the Rupee? Runaway drug prices, Economic and Political Weekly, XXXIV(9), 27 February, pp514-518. Sutton, J. (1999): Technology, marketing and risk in the evolution of the pharmaceutical industry, in J. Sussex & N. Marchant (Eds.), Risk and return in the pharmaceutical industry. London: Office of Health Economics. UNCTAD & ICTSD (2005): Resource Book on TRIPs and Development, Chapter 31, Available at www.iprsonline.org; last accessed 20 January 2005. UNDP (2003): Making global trade work for people, Earthscan Publications Ltd., London. United Nations (1964): The Role of Patents in the Transfer of Technology to Developing Countries, United Nations, New York. UNDOC.E/3861/Rev.1 United Nations (1975): The Role of the Patent System in the Transfer of Technology to Developing Countries, United Nations, New York. Vedaraman, S. (1972): The new Indian patents law, IIC, 3(1), pp39-54. Vij, B. (1999): The patents roller-coaster, The Indian Express, 28 March. WTO (1997): India - Patent Protection for Pharmaceutical and Agricultural Chemical Products, AB-1997- 5, WT/DS50/AB/R, 19 December. WTO (2000a): Canada – Patent Protection of Pharmaceutical Products, Report of the Panel, WT/DS114/R, dated 17 March. WTO (2000b): Brazil – Measures affecting patent protection: Request for consultation by the United States, WT/DS199/1, dated 8 June. WTO (2001a): Brazil – Measures affecting patent protection: Request for the establishment of a panel by the United States, WT/DS199/3, dated 9 January. WTO (2001b): Declaration on the TRIPs Agreement and public health, Ministerial Conference, 4th session, Doha, 9-14 November, WT/Min(01)/Dec/W/2, dated 14 November. WTO (2003): Decision of the General Council on implementing paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration, WT/L/540, dated 1 September.|
Actions (login required)