The short but significant life of the International Trade Organization: lessons for our time
Drache, Daniel, 1941- (2000) The short but significant life of the International Trade Organization: lessons for our time. Working Paper. University of Warwick. Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation, Coventry.
WRAP_Drache_wp6200.pdf - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
Official URL: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/csgr/research/wo...
Along with the World Bank and the IMF, the International Trade Organization (ITO) formed the centrepiece of new kind of international organization in the late 40s. At the time, what was particularly novel about the Havana Charter was that it was not simply or mainly a trade organization like the WTO, its latter day descendent. At its core, the countries of the world rejected the idea that it was possible to maintain a firewall between trade, development, employment standards and domestic policy. Its most distinctive feature was the integration of an ambitious and successful program to reduce traditional trade barriers, with a wide-angled agreement that addressed investment, employment standards, development, business monopolies and the like. It pioneered the idea that trade disputes had to be settled by consultation and mediation rather than with legal clout. Further it established an institutional linkage between trade and labour standards that would effect a major advance in global governance. Finally it embedded the full employment obligation, along with "a commitment to free markets" as the cornerstone of multilateralism. Despite these accomplishments, the US Congress refused to ratify the Havana Charter even though it had signed it. As a direct consequence, the ITO's collapse represented a significant closure of the full employment era internationally. In the end, it's demise made possible the rapid return of the free trade canon that increasingly, would impose its authority and ideology on all international organizations and on the practice of multilateralism. As this essay concludes, its history compelling because whatever its apparent shortcomings, governments, economists and ordinary people demanded that trade, employment goals and developmental needs should reinforce each other in the world trading system.
|Item Type:||Working or Discussion Paper (Working Paper)|
|Subjects:||H Social Sciences > HF Commerce
J Political Science > JZ International relations
|Divisions:||Faculty of Social Sciences > Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||International Trade Organization, International trade agencies, Foreign trade regulation, International economic relations|
|Series Name:||Working papers (University of Warwick. Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation)|
|Publisher:||University of Warwick. Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation|
|Place of Publication:||Coventry|
|Number of Pages:||43|
|Status:||Not Peer Reviewed|
|Access rights to Published version:||Open Access|
|References:||Acheson, K., J. F. Chant, et al., Eds. (1972). Bretton Woods Revisited. Toronto: U of T. Alcock, Anthony (1971). History of the International Labour Organization: History of the International Labour Organization London: Macmillan. Armstrong, Philip,Andrew Glyn, et al. (1991). Capitalism Since 1945. London, Basil Blackwell. Brown Jr., W. A. (1950). The United States and the Restoration of World Trade. An Analysis and Appraisal of the ITO Charter and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution. Carr, E. H. (1981 (original edition, 1939)). The Twenty Years' Crisis 1919-1939. London: Macmillan. Charnovitz, Steve (1997). “Trade, Employment and Labour Standards.” Temple International and Comparative Law Journal 11: 131-163. Charnovitz, Steve (1995). “Promoting Higher Labour Standards.” The Washington Quarterly 18:3: 167-190. Diebold, William. (1994). “Reflections on the International Trade Organization.” Northern Illinois University Law Review 14:2(Spring): 335-346. Diebold, William. (1994). From the ITO to GATT -- And Back? The Bretton Woods-GATT System Retrospect and Prospect After Fifty Years. Orin Kirshner. (Ed.). New York:, M.E. Sharpe: 152-173. Diebold, W. J. (1952). The End of the I.T.O. Essays in International Finance No.16. Princeton:, Princeton University. October: 1-37. Drache, Daniel and Harry Glazebeek (1992). The Changing Workplace: The Changing Workplace Toronto: Lorimer. Destler, I. M. (1995). American Trade Politics. Washington D.C.: Institute for International Economics. Economist (1944). “Trade Argument.” 151 (Oct.26, 1946): 652-653. Economist (1944). “The Principles of Trade I.” (January 1 1944): 4-5. Economist (1944). “The Balance of Payments II.” (January 8): 32-34. Economist (1944). “Trade and Employment III.” (January 15): 64-65. Economist (1944). “The Multilateral Approach IV.” (January 22): 94-96. Economist (1944). “Planned Expansion V.” (January 25): 137. Economist (1944). “The Regional Solution VI.” (Febrary 5): 169-170. Economist (1944). “The New Liberalism VIII.” (February 19): 232-233. Economist (1944). “Prices and Markets VII.” (February 12): 204-205. Economist (1945). “Trade and Employment.” (December 15): 869-871. Economist (1944). “Employment Policy.” (June 3): 738-739. Economist (1946). “Trade Make-Believe.” (November 30): 859-860. Eichengreen, B. (1996). Globalizing Capital A History of the International Monetary System. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Gardiner, R (1956). Sterling Dollar Diplomacy: Anglo-American Collaboration in the Reconstruction of Multilateral Trade. New York, OUP. Haas, P. (1992). “Introduction: epistemic communities and international policy co-ordination.” International Organization 46:1(winter): 1-35. Hall, P., Ed. (1989). The Political Power of Economic Ideas: Keynesianism across Nations. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Hansen, A. (1945). America's Role in the World Economy. New York: W.W. Norton. Helleiner, E. (1993). When finance was the servant: international capital movements in the Bretton Woods order. Finance and World Politics. P. Cerny. Ed. London: Edward Elger Publishing: 20-48. Helleiner, E. (1995). From Bretton Woods to Global Finance. Political Economy and the Changing Global Order. Richard Stubbs and G. Underhill. Eds. Toronto: M&S: 163-175. Henderson, H. D. (1955). The Inter-War Years and Other Papers A Selection from the Writings of Hubert Douglas Henderson. Oxford: OUP. Hirschman, A. (1989). How The Keynesian Revolution was Exported From the United States, And Other Countries. The Political Power of Economic Ideas: Keynesianism Across Nations. P. Hall. Ed. Princeton:, Princeton University Press. Hobsbawm, E. (1994). Age of Extremes The Short Twentieth Century 1914-1991. London: Michael Joseph. Ikenberry, G. J. (1992). “A world economy restored: expert consensus and the Anglo-American postwar settlement.” International Organization 46:1(winter): 289-321. Irwin, D. (1996). Against the Tide An Intellectual History of Free Trade. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Jackson, J. (1989). The World Trading System. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. Johnson, H. G., Ed. (1969). New Trade Strategy for the World Economy. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Kaldor, N. (1981). “The role of increasing returns, technical progress and cumulative caustion in the theory of international trade and economic growth.” Economie Appliquee 34: 593-615. Kalecki, M. (1996 (originally published in 1945). “The Maintenance of Full Employment after the Transition Period: A Comparison of the problem in the United States and United Kingdom.” reprinted in special issue of International Labour Review 135:3-4: 359-365. Kalecki, M. (1943). “Political Aspects of Full Employment.” Political Science Quarterly 14.4 Kock, K. (1969). International Trade Policy and the GATT 1947-1967. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell. League of Nations, Report of the Economic and Financial Committee. (1945). Commercial Policy in the Post-War World. Geneva: League of Nations. Lipson, C. (1985). Standing Guard: Protecting Foreign Capital in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press. Maier,Charles (1981). “The Two Postwar Eras and Conditions for Stability in Twentieth Century Western Europe.” American Historial Review 86(April): 327-352; Meade, J. (1942, reprinted 1987). “A Proposal for an International Commercial Union, 194?” World Economy 10:4(December): 400-407. Meade, J. M. (1951). The Theory of International Economic Policy: The Balance of Payments. London: Oxford University Press. Meade, J. E. (1953). Problems of Economic Union. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd. Miskell, R. (1994). “Antecedents of the ITO Charter and their Relevance for the Uruguay Round.” Northern Ilinois Law Review 14:2 (Spring). Myrdal, G. (1957). Economic Theory and Underdeveloped Regions. London: Methuen. Odell, John and. Barry Eichengreen. (1998).” The United States, the ITO and the WTO: Exit Options, Agent Slack, and Presidential Leadership.” in The WTO as an International Organization. Ann. O. Krueger. ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Ostry, S. (1997). The Post-Cold War Trading System Who's on First? Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Pauly, L. W. (1997). Who Elected the Bankers? Surveillance and Control in the World Economy. Cornell: Cornell Univeristy Press. Picciotto, S. (1998). “Globalization, Liberalization, Regulation.” unpublished paper. University of Warwick. Reisman, Simon (1997). ITO and GATT. The Bretton Woods-GATT System. Retrospect and Prospect Ater Fifty Years. Orin Kirshner. (Ed.). New York:, Sharpe: 82-86. Rodrik, D. (1997). “Sense and Nonsense in the Globalization Debate.” Foreign Policy 107 (Summer): 19-36. Ruggie, J. G. (1982). “International Regimes, Transactions, and Change: Embedded Liberalism in the Postwar Economic Order.” International Organization 36 (Spring): 379-415. Ruggie, J. G. (1992). “Multilateralism:an antonomy of an institution.” International Organization 46:3(summer): 573-598. Schumacher, E.F. (1944). Export Policy and Full Employment. London: Fabian Publications. Sidelesky, R. (1994). John Maynard Keynes The Economist as Saviour 1920-1937. London: Allen Lane. Stern, B. (1983). Un Nouvel Ordre Economique International? Recueil de Textes et Documents. Paris: Economica. United Nations Conference on Trade and Employment (1947-48). Havana Charter for an International Trade Organization. Washington: U.S. Government Print Off. Viner, J. (1947). “Conflicts of Principle in Drafting a Trade Charter.” Foreign Affairs 25:4 (July): 612-628. Viner, J. et. al. (1945). The United States in a Multi-National Economy. New York: Council on Foreign Relations. Wilcox, C. (1949). A Charter for World Trade. New York: The MacMillan Co. Yergin, D. and J. Stanislaw (1998). The Commanding Heights the Battle Between Government and the Marketplace That is Remaking the World. New York: Simon and Schuster.|
Actions (login required)