Radical aromatic cyclisation and substitution reactions
Murphy, Nicholas Patrick, 1965- (2008) Radical aromatic cyclisation and substitution reactions. PhD thesis, University of Warwick.Full text not available from this repository.
Official URL: http://webcat.warwick.ac.uk/record=b2280112~S9
This dissertation is divided into five chapters. Chapter One consists of an introduction to radical cyclisation and rearrangement reactions. Chapter Two investigates the reactions of substituted arylsulfonamides 278a-l with copper bromide and an amine ligand-TPA. This reaction involves an alkyl radical generated from the copper (I) bromide/TPA complex, which can then undergo a 1,5- ipso attack onto the sulfonamide leading to a cyclohexadienyl radical intermediate. Re-aromatisation and extrusion of sulfur dioxide leads to an amidyl radical intermediate. This can undergo either cyclisation back onto the aromatic ring to give the 6-substituted oxindole 336, or reduction from H-atom abstraction by the solvent leading to rearranged amides. A minor product identified as a 5-substituted oxindole 333 may be formed from direct radical cyclisation onto the sulfonamide followed by extrusion of sulfur dioxide. An unambiguous synthesis of 333 was obtained through the Stollé method in order to rigorously identify this product. For completion, the rearranged amide 280e was also unambiguously synthesised from known literature sources. It has been shown that the selectivity towards either rearrangement or cyclisation is dependent upon the solvent used and temperature. For example, toluene induces excellent selectivity towards cyclisation (to furnish oxindoles), while using dichloromethane (DCM) induces a greater selectivity towards rearranged amides. Chapter Three explores the effects of varying the alkyl chain length on the nitrogen atom on selectivity, while keeping both the aryl group and initiator the same. It has been shown that selectivity towards the rearrangement (or decrease in cyclisation) occurred when the alkyl chain was increased from N-butyl to N-dodecyl. In addition a similar solvent effect on selectivity was observed as discussed in Chapter 3, notably relatively more rearranged amide was produced with DCM and oxindoles with toluene. Chapter four involves investigating the copper-mediated radical cyclisation of haloamides to give oxindoles directly. The final chapter consists of the experimental.
|Item Type:||Thesis or Dissertation (PhD)|
|Subjects:||Q Science > QD Chemistry|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Rearrangements (Chemistry) -- Research, Free radical reactions -- Research, Aromaticity (Chemistry) -- Research, Substitution reactions -- Research|
|Institution:||University of Warwick|
|Theses Department:||Department of Chemistry|
|Supervisor(s)/Advisor:||Clark, A. J. (Andrew J.)|
|Sponsors:||Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (Great Britain) (EPSRC)|
|Extent:||274 leaves : ill., charts|
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