Policy initiatives to address low-income households’ nutritional needs in the UK
Dowler, Elizabeth, 1951-. (2008) Policy initiatives to address low-income households’ nutritional needs in the UK. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, Vol.67 (No.3). pp. 289-300. ISSN 0029-6651
WRAP_Dowler_PNS_Policy_initiatives.pdf - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0029665108008586
Members of low-income households in the UK are more likely to have patterns of food and nutrient intakes that are less inclined to lead to good health outcomes in the short and long term. Health inequalities, including the likelihood of child and adulthood obesity, have long been documented in the UK and show little sign of improving so far, despite 10 years of attention from a government that has committed itself to addressing them. Following the Acheson Inquiry into Inequalities in Health (1998) in England a number of initiatives to tackle inequalities in food and diet were established, both nationally and within the devolved nations of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Nevertheless, until recently, there has been no overall strategic policy addressing the food and nutritional needs of low-income households. The present paper reviews how the problems have been constructed and understood and how they have been addressed, briefly drawing on recent evaluations of food and nutrition policies in Scotland and Wales. The contemporary challenge is to frame cross-cutting policy initiatives that move beyond simple targeting and local actions, encompass a life-course approach and recognise both the diversity of households that fall into ‘low-income’ categories and the need for ‘upstream’ intervention.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Alternative Title:||Symposium on ‘Intervention policies for deprived households’: policy initiatives to address low-income households' nutritional needs in the UK|
|Subjects:||H Social Sciences > HN Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
|Divisions:||Faculty of Social Sciences > Sociology|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Food -- Great Britain, Nutrition -- Requirements -- Great Britain, Low-income consumers -- Great Britain, Great Britain -- Economic policy -- 1997-|
|Journal or Publication Title:||Proceedings of the Nutrition Society|
|Publisher:||Cambridge University Press|
|Official Date:||August 2008|
|Page Range:||pp. 289-300|
|Access rights to Published version:||Restricted or Subscription Access|
|Funder:||Great Britain. Food Standards Agency (FSA)|
|Version or Related Resource:||Earlier version: Dowler, E. (2007). Policy initiatives to address low-income households’ nutritional needs in the UK. In: 3rd Congress of the Societe-Francaise-de-Nutrition, Lille, France, 06-07 December 2007.|
1. Davey Smith, G & Brunner, E (1997) Socio-economic differentials in health: the role of nutrition. Proc Nutr Soc 56, 75–90.
2. James, WPT, Nelson, M, Ralph, A & Leather, S (1997) The contribution of nutrition to inequalities in health. Br Med J 314, 1545–1549.
3. Dowler, E (2001) Inequalities in diet and physical activity in Europe. Public Health Nutr 4, 701–709.
4. Dowler, E, Caraher, M & Lincoln, P (2007) Inequalities in food and nutrition: challenging ‘lifestyles’. In Challenging Health Inequalities: from Acheson to ‘Choosing Health’, pp. 127–155 (Dowler, E and Spencer, N editors). Bristol: Policy Press.
5. Brewer, M, Browne, J & Sutherland, H (2006) What Will it Take to End Child Poverty? York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
6. Whelan, CT, Layte, R & Maître, B (2003) Persistent income poverty and deprivation in the European Union: An analysis of the first three waves of the European Community Household Panel. J Soc Policy 32, 1–18.
7. McKendrick, JH, Mooney, G, Dickie, J & Kelly, P (editors) (2007) Poverty in Scotland 2007. London: CPAG.
8. Child Poverty Action Group (2007) Poverty: the facts. http://www.cpag.org.uk/publications/extracts/PtheFsumm07.pdf
9. New Policy Institute (2008) The poverty site. www.poverty.org.uk/
10. Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2008) Research, policy and practice. www.jrf.org.uk/research-and-policy/
11. Department for Work and Pensions (2008) Child poverty. http://www.dwp.gov.uk/childpoverty/
12. Townsend Centre for International Poverty Research (2008) Poverty. http://www.bristol.ac.uk/poverty/
13. Anderson, AS (2007) Nutrition interventions in women in low-income groups in the UK. Proc Nutr Soc 66, 25–32.
14. Dowler, E & Dobson, B (1997) Nutrition and poverty in Europe: an overview. Proc Nutr Soc 56, 51–62.
15. New Policy Institute (2008) Choice of low income thresholds. http://www.poverty.org.uk/summary/income%20intro.shtml
16. Gordon, D, Adelman, L, Ashworth, K et al. (2000) Poverty and Social Exclusion in Britain. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation; available at http://www.jrf.org.uk/bookshop/eBooks/185935128X.pdf
17. Dorling, D, Rigby, J, Wheeler, B, Ballas, D, Thomas, B, Fahmy, E, Gordon, D & Lupton, R (2007) Poverty, Wealth and Place in Britain, 1968 to 2005. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
18. Church, J (2004) Income. In Focus on Social Inequalities 2004, pp. 41–54 (Babb, P, Martin, J and Haezewindt, P editors). London: The Stationery Office; available at http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_compendia/fosi2004/SocialInequalities_full.pdf
19. New Policy Institute (2008) Persistent low income. http://www.poverty.org.uk/03d/index.shtml
20. Dowler, E, Turner, S & Dobson, B (2001) Poverty Bites: Food, Health and Poor Families. London: Child Poverty Action Group.
21. Dowler, E (1997) Budgeting for food on a low income: the case of lone parents. Food Policy 22, 405–417.
22. Dowler, E & Calvert, C (1997) Budgeting for food on state benefits: poor lone parents in the United Kingdom. In Poverty and Food in Welfare Societies, pp. 307–315 (Köhler, B, Feichtinger, E, Barlösius, E and Dowler, E editors). Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung.
23. Palmer, G, MacInnes, T & Kenway, P (2007) Monitoring poverty and social exclusion 2007. http://www.poverty.org.uk/reports/mpse%202007.pdf
24. New Policy Institute and Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2008) The poverty site. http://www.poverty.org.uk/index.htm
25. Department of Food, Environment and Rural Affairs (2007) Family Food – A Report on the 2005–06 Expenditure and Food Survey. London: The Stationery Office.
26. Gregory, J, Collins, DL, Davies, PSW, Hughes, JM & Clarke, PC (1995) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Children Aged 1.5 to 4.5 Years. London: H. M. Stationery Office.
27. Finch, S (1998) National Diet and Nutrition Survey People Aged 65 Years and Over. vol. 1: Report of the Diet and Nutrition Survey. London: The Stationery Office.
28. Gregory, JR (2000) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Young People Aged 4–18 Years. vol. 1: Report of the Diet and Nutrition Survey. London: The Stationery Office.
29. Hoare, J, Henderson, L, Bates, CJ, Prentice, A, Birch, M, Swan, G & Farron, M (2004) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years. vol. 5: Summary Report. London: The Stationery Office.
30. Acheson, D (1998) Independent Inquiry into Inequalities in Health. London: Department of Health.
31. Bartley, M (2004) Health Inequality: An Introduction to Theories, Concepts and Methods. Cambridge: Policy Press.
32. Graham, H (2007) Unequal Lives: Health and Socioceonomic Inequalities. Maidenhead, Berks.: Open University Press.
33. Press, V & Mwatsama, M (2004) Nutrition and Health Toolkit, London: National Heart Forum; available at www.heartforum.org.uk/Publications_NHFreports_NutritionToolkit.aspx
34. Wrieden, WL, Barton, KL, Armstrong, J & McNeill, G (2006) A Review of Food Consumption and Nutrient Intakes from National Surveys in Scotland: Comparison to the Scottish Dietary Targets. Aberdeen: Food Standards Agency Scotland.
35. Nelson, M, Ehrens, B, Bates, B, Church, S & Boshier, T (2007) Low Income Diet and Nutrition Survey. Summary of Key Findings. London: The Stationery Office.
36. Holmes, B, Dick, K & Nelson, M (2007) A comparison of four dietary assessment methods in materially deprived households in England. Public Health Nutr (Epublication ahead of print version).
37. Nelson, M, Ehrens, B, Bates, B, Church, S & Boshier, T (2007) Low Income Diet and Nutrition Survey. vol. 2: Food Consumption Nutrient Intake. London: The Stationery Office; available at http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/lidnsvol02
38. Nelson, M, Ehrens, B, Bates, B, Church, S & Boshier, T (2007) Low Income Diet and Nutrition Survey. vol. 3: Nutritional Status Physical Activity Economic, Social and Other Factors. London: The Stationery Office; available at http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/lidnsvol03.pdf
39. Tingay, R, Tan, C, Tan, N, Tang, S, Teoh, P, Wong, R & Gulliford, M (2003) Food insecurity and low income in an English inner city. J Public Health 25, 156–159.
40. Hitchman, C, Christie, I, Harrison, M & Lang, T (2004) Inconvenience Food: The Struggle to Eat Well on a Low Income. London: Demos; available at http://www.demos.co.uk/publications/inconveniencefood
41. Save the Children (2007) Robbing Peter to Pay Paul: How Limited Access to Affordable Credit Hurts Children Living in Poverty. Briefing. London: Save the Children; available at http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/en/docs/robbing-peter.pdf.
42. McKendrick, JH, Cunningham-Burley, S & Backett-Milburn, K (2003) Life in Low Income Families in Scotland. University of Edinburgh: Centre for Research on Families and Relationships.
43. House of Commons Health Committee (2004) Obesity. Third Report of Session 2003–4. vol. 1: Report, Together with Formal Minutes. HC 23–1. London: The Stationery Office; available at http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/cmselect/cmhealth/23/23.pdf.
44. Wardle, J, Waller, J & Jarvis, MJ (2002) Sex differences in the association of socioeconomic status with obesity. Am J Public Health 92, 299–304.
45. Drewnowski, A & Specter, SE (2004) Poverty and obesity: the role of energy density and energy costs. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 6–16.
46. Okasha, M, McCarron, P, McEwen, J, Durnin, J & Davey Smith, G (2003) Childhood social class and adulthood obesity: findings from the Glasgow Alumni Cohort. J Epidemiol Community Health 57, 508–509.
47. Lobstein, T & Millstone, E (2006) Policy Options for Responding to Obesity: Evaluation the Options. Brighton: Science & Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex; available at http://www.sussex.ac.uk/spru/documents/porgrow_complete.pdf
48. Stamatakis, E, Primatesta, P, Chinn, S, Rona, R & Flascheti, E (2005) Overweight and obesity trends from 1974–2003 in English children: what is the role of socio-economic factors? Arch Dis Child 90, 999–1004.
49. Kinra, S, Nelder, RP & Lewendon, GJ (2000) Deprivation and childhood obesity: a cross sectional study of 20,973 children in Plymouth, United Kingdom. J Epidemiol Community Health 54, 456–460.
50. Kinra, S, Baumer, JH & Davey Smith, G (2005) Early growth and childhood obesity: a historical cohort study. Arch Dis Child 90, 1122–1127.
51. Pickett, KE, Kelly, S, Brunner, E, Lobstein, T & Wilkinson, RG (2005) Wider income gaps, wider waistbands? An ecological study of obesity and income inequality. J Epidemiol Community Health 59, 670–674.
52. Kahn, HS, Tatham, LM, Pamuk, ER & Heath, CW Jr (1998) Are geographic regions with high income inequality associated with risk of abdominal weight gain? Soc Sci Med 47, 1–6.
53. Ellaway, A, Anderson, A & Macintyre, S (1997) Does area of residence affect body size and shape? Int J Obes (Lond) 21, 304–308.
54. Government Office for Science (2007) Foresight. Tackling Obesities: Future Choices – Summary of Key Messages. London: Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills; available at http://www.foresight.gov.uk/Obesity/obesity_final/20.pdf
55. Crotty, P & Germov, J (2004) Food and class. In A Sociology of Food and Nutrition: The Social Appetite, 2nd ed., pp. 241–62 (Germov, J and Williams, L editors). South Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University Press.
56. Dahl, E, Fritzell, J, Lahelma, E., Martikainene, P, Kunst, A & Mackenbach, JP (2006) Welfare state regimes and health inequalities. In Social Inequalities in Health: New Evidence and Policy Implications, pp. 193–222 (Siegrist, J and Marmot, M editors). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
57. Kawachi, I (1999) Social capital and community effects on population and individual health. Ann New York Acad Sci 896, 120–130.
58. Martin, KS, Rogers, BL, Cook, JT & Joseph, HM (2004) Social capital is associated with decreased risk of hunger. Soc Sci Med 58, 2645–2654.
59. Cabinet Office Social Exclusion Task Force (2008) Social exclusion task force. http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/social_exclusion_task_force/
60. Graham, H & Kelly, M (2004) Health Inequalities: Concepts, Frameworks and Policy. London: Health Development Agency.
61. Goode, J, Callender, C & Lister, R (1998) Purse or Wallet? Gender Inequalities and Income Distribution within Families on Benefits. London: Policy Studies Institute; summary findings available at http://www.jrf.org.uk/knowledge/findings/socialpolicy/spr468.asp
62. Lister, R (2005) The links between women's and children's poverty, Poverty 121, 9–12.
63. Morris, J, Donkin, A, Wonderling, D, Wilkinson, P & Dowler, E (2000) A minimum income for healthy living. J Epidemiol Community Health 54, 885–889.
64. Lynch, JW, Smith, GD, Kaplan, GA & House, JS (2000) Income inequality and mortality: importance to health of individual income, psychosocial environment and material conditions. Br Med J 320, 1200–1204.
65. Wilkinson, RG (1997) Socioeconomic determinants of health: Health inequalities: relative or absolute material standards? Br Med J 314, 591–595.
66. Kawachi, I, Kennedy, BP, Lochner, K & Prothrow-Smith, D (1997) Social capital, income inequality and mortality. Am J Public Health 87, 1491–1498.
67. Baum, FE & Ziersch, AM (2003) Social capital. J Epidemiol Community Health 57, 320–323.
68. Food Standards Agency (2007) FSA publishes findings of the Low Income Diet and Nutrition Survey. Press release Sunday 15 July 2007. http://www.food.gov.uk/news/pressreleases/2007/jul/lidns
69. Donkin, AJM, Dowler, EA, Stevenson, SJ & Turner, SA (2000) Mapping access to food in a deprived area: the development of price and availability indices. Public Health Nutr 3, 31–38.
70. Rex, D & Blair, A (2003) Unjust des(s)erts: food retailing and neighbourhood health in Sandwell. Int J Retail Distribution Manag 31, 459–465.
71. Rampton, L (2002) Food Access and Social Exclusion in London: A Research Report, Framework and Action Plan for London. Report to the Greater London Authority. London: GLA.
72. O'Neill, M (2005) Putting Food Access on the Radar: How to Target and Prioritise Communities at Risk. London: National Consumer Council.
73. Scottish Community Diet Project (2005) On Track. Glasgow: SCDP; available at http://www.communityfoodandhealth.org.uk/fileuploads/scdp-ontrack.pdf
74. Food Standards Agency (2008) Accessing healthy food: A national assessment and sentinel mapping study of food retailing in Scotland (SO4005). http://www.foodstandards.gov.uk/science/research/researchinfo/devolvedadmins/scotlandresearch/scotlandresearch/ScotlandProjectList/s04005/S04005r/ (accessed February 2008).
75. Cummins, S & Macintyre, S (2002) ‘Food deserts’: evidence and assumption in health policy making. Br Med J 325, 436–438.
76. Wrigley, N (2002) Food deserts in British cities: policy context and research priorities. Urban Stud 39, 2029–2040.
77. White, M, Bunting, J, Williams, E, Raybould, S, Adamson, A & Mathers, JC (2004) Do ‘Food Deserts’ Exist? A Multi-level, Geographical Analysis of the Relationship Between Retail Food Access, Socio-Economic Position and Dietary Intake. London: Food Standards Agency.
78. Kempson, E & Bennett, F (1997) Local Living Costs, London: Policy Studies Institute; summary available at http://www.jrf.org.uk/knowledge/findings/socialpolicy/pdf/sp123.pdf
79. Government Statistical Service (1999) Households below average income. http://www.dwp.gov.uk/asd/hbai/hbai99.html
80. Modlock, S (2008) Winners and losers in the energy bill lottery. http://uk.biz.yahoo.com/15012008/389/winners-losers-energy-bill-lottery.html
81. BBC News (2003) Water rates to ‘rise regionally’. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/cumbria/3103524.stm
82. Dowler, E (2003) Food and poverty in Britain: Rights and responsibilities. In The Welfare of Food: Rights and Responsibilities in a Changing World, pp. 140–159 (Dowler, E and Jones Finer, C editors). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
83. Parker, H (editor) (1998) Low Cost but Acceptable: A Minimum Income Standard for the UK. Bristol: Policy Press.
84. Morris, J, Donkin, A, Wonderling, D, Wilkinson, P & Dowler, E (2000) A minimum income for healthy living. J Epidemiol Community Health 54, 885–889.
85. Morris, J, Dangour, A, Deeming, C, Fletcher, A & Wilkinson, P (2005) Minimum Income for Health Living: Older People. London: Age Concern England.
86. Dibsdall, LA, Lambert, N, Bobbin, RF & Frewer, LJ (2003) Low income consumers' attitudes and behaviours towards access, affordability and motivation to eat fruit and vegetables. Public Health Nutr 6, 159–168.
87. Beresford, P, Green, D, Lister, R & Woodard, K (1999) Poverty First Hand: Poor People Speak for Themselves. London: Child Poverty Action Group.
88. Dobson, B, Kellard, K & Talbot, D (2000) A Recipe for Success? An Evaluation of a Community Food Project. Loughborough, Leics.: Centre for Research in Social Policy, Loughborough University.
89. Kyle, R & Blair, A (2007) Planning for health: generation, regeneration and food in Sandwell. Int J Retail Distribution Manag 35, 457–473.
90. Evans, N (1996) What do homeless people eat and can Crisis FareShare help improve their diet? Nutr Food Sci 96, 15–17.
91. Evans, N & Dowler, EA (1999) Food, health and eating among single homeless and marginalized people in London. J Hum Nutr Diet 12, 179–199.
92. Kershaw, A, Singleton, N & Meltzer, H (2000) Survey of the Health and Well-being of Homeless People in Glasgow. London: Office of National Statistics.
93. Deloitte MCS Ltd (2006) Research into Food Poverty and Homelessness in Northern Ireland: Final Report. Belfast: Food Standards Agency.
94. Coufopoulos, AM (2008) Homeless mothers and their children: The experience of two generations at nutritional risk in the UK. In Infant and Young Child Feeding: Cultural Challenges (Hall Moran, V and Dykes, F editors). Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell (In the Press).
95. Sellen, D, Tedstone, A & Frize, J (2002) Food insecurity among refugee families in East London: results of a pilot assessment. Public Health Nutr 5, 637–644. OpenURL PubMed CrossRef CJO Abstract
96. Smith, DF(editor) (1996) Nutrition in Britain: Science, Scientists and Politics in the Twentieth Century. Ab
Actions (login required)
Downloads per month over past year