A randomised factorial design clinical trial to investigate the impact of parenteral long acting oxytetracycline, foot trimming and flunixine meglumine on time to recovery from lameness and foot lesions in sheep lame with footrot
Kaler, Jasmeet, Daniels, S. L. S., Wright, Jordan L. and Green, Laura E. (2009) A randomised factorial design clinical trial to investigate the impact of parenteral long acting oxytetracycline, foot trimming and flunixine meglumine on time to recovery from lameness and foot lesions in sheep lame with footrot. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine . ISSN 0891-6640
PDF (Article Main Text)
WRAP_Kaler_9877845-bs-191109-kaler_et_al._2009_clinical_trial_footrot-_r2-f.pdf - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
PDF (Blackwell Policy)
Restricted to Repository staff only - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2009.0450.x
Background: Internationally, foot trimming is used by most farmers and parenteral antibacterials by some, to treat sheep with footrot. Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are sometimes used. No clinical trials have compared these treatments.
Objectives: To investigate the above treatments on time to recovery from lameness and foot 5 lesions in sheep with footrot.
Animals: 53 sheep with footrot on a commercial farm in England.
Methods: In a randomised factorial design, the sheep were allocated to treatment groups. The 8 treatments were oxytetracycline spray to all sheep (positive control) and one or more of: parenteral administration of long acting oxytetracycline, flunixine meglumine and foot trimming on day 1 or day 6 of diagnosis. Follow-up was for 15 days. Time to recovery from lameness and lesions was investigated with discrete- time survival models.
Results: There was significant association (p<0.05) between recovery from lameness and lesions. Sheep receiving antibacterials parenterally recovered faster from lameness (odds ratio (OR): 4.92 (1.20-20.10)) and lesions (OR: 5.11 (1.16-22.4)) than positive controls whereas sheep foot trimmed on day 1 (lameness- OR: 0.05 (0.005-0.51); lesions- OR: 0.06 (0.008-0.45)) or day 6 of diagnosis (lameness-OR: 0.07 (0.01-0.72); lesions- OR: 0.07 (0.01-0.56)) recovered slowly than positive controls. NSAID had no significant effect on recovery.
Conclusions and Clinical Importance: If foot trimming on day 1 or 6 of diagnosis was stopped and parenteral antibacterials were used, then over 1 million sheep/annum lame with footrot in the UK, would recover more rapidly with benefits to productivity. Globally, this figure would be 21 much higher.
|Item Type:||Submitted Journal Article|
|Subjects:||S Agriculture > SF Animal culture|
|Divisions:||Faculty of Science > Life Sciences (2010- ) > Biological Sciences ( -2010)|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Footrot in sheep -- Research, Sheep -- Infections -- Research, Veterinary medicine -- Research, Antibacterial agents, Anti-inflammatory agents|
|Journal or Publication Title:||Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine|
|Publisher:||Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.|
|Official Date:||30 December 2009|
|Access rights to Published version:||Open Access|
|Funder:||Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (Great Britain) (BBSRC)|
|Grant number:||BBE01870X1 (BBSRC)|
Grogono-Thomas R, Johnston AM. A Study of Ovine Lameness. MAFF Final Report MAFF Open Contract OC59 45K. London: DEFRA Publications; 1997.
Kaler J, Green LE. Naming and recognition of six foot lesions of sheep using written and pictorial information: A study of 809 English sheep farmers. Prev Vet Med 2008;83:52–64. Links
Egerton JR, Yong WK, Riffkin GG. Foot rot and foot abscess of ruminants. CRC Press, 1, 1989;235–248. Links
Winter A. Lameness in sheep: 1, Diagnosis. In Pract 2004;26:58–63. Links
Moore LJ, Wassink GJ, Green LE, Grogono-Thomas R. The detection and characterisation of Dichelobacter nodosus from cases of ovine footrot in England and Wales. Vet Microbiol 2005;108:57–67. Links
Anonymous. Lameness in Sheep. London: DEFRA publications, ADMAIL 6000; 2003.
Winter A. Lameness in sheep 2. Treatment and control. In Pract 2004;26:130–139. Links
Wassink GJ, Grogono-Thomas R, Moore LJ, Green LE. Risk factors associated with the prevalence of footrot in sheep from 1999 to 2000. Vet Rec 2003;152:351–358. Links
Kaler J. Epidemiological investigations into lameness in sheep. PhD Thesis, University of Warwick, 2008.
Abbott KA, Lewis CJ. Current approaches to the management of ovine footrot. Vet J 2005;169:28–41. Links
Bulgin MS, Lincoln SD, Lane VM, Matlock M. Comparison of treatment methods for the control of contagious ovine foot rot. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1986;189:194–196. Links
Duncanson G. Ovine footrot: a closer look. Vet Times 2009;VT37.09:8–9. Links
Anonymous. Better Returns from Reducing Flock Lameness. Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire: EBLEX publications, EBLEX; 2008.
Green LE, Wassink GJ, Grogono-Thomas R, et al. Looking after the individual to reduce disease in the flock: A binomial mixed effects model investigating the impact of individual sheep management of footrot and interdigital dermatitis in a prospective longitudinal study on one farm. Prev Vet Med 2007;78:172–178. Links
Egerton JR, Parsonson IM, Graham NP. Parenteral chemotherapy of ovine foot-rot. Aust Vet J 1968;44:275–283. Links
Venning CM, Curtis MA, Egerton JR. Treatment of virulent footrot with lincomycin and spectinomycin. Aust Vet J 1990;67:258–260. Links
Ware JK, Scrivener CJ, Vizard AL. Efficacy of erythromycin compared with penicillin/streptomycin for the treatment of virulent footrot in sheep. Aust Vet J 1994;71:88–89. Links
Grogono-Thomas R, Wilsmore AJ, Simon AJ, Izzard KA. The use of long-acting oxytetracycline for the treatment of ovine footrot. Br Vet J 1994;150:561–568. Links
Jordan D, Plant JW, Nicol HI, et al. Factors associated with the effectiveness of antibacterial treatment for ovine virulent footrot. Aust Vet J 1996;73:211–215. Links
Fitzpatrick J, Scott M, Nolan A. Assessment of pain and welfare in sheep. Small Ruminant Res 2006;62 (1–2 Special Issue):55–61. Links
Flecknell P. Analgesia from a veterinary perspective. Br J Anaesth 2008;101:121–124. Links
Kaler J, Wassink GJ, Green LE. The inter- and intra-observer reliability of a locomotion scoring scale for sheep. Vet J 2009;180:189–194. Links
Hawker EM. An Intervention Study to Minimise Footrot in Sheep. MSc. University of Warwick, 2008.
Montgomery A, Peters T, Little P. Design, analysis and presentation of factorial randomised controlled trials. BMC Med Res Methodol 2003;3:26. Links
Chow SC, Liu JP. Design and Analysis of Clinical Trials. New York: Wiley; 1998.
Singer JD, Willett JB. Applied Longitudinal Analysis: Modeling Change and Event Occurrence. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2003.
Anonymous. Pitsford Hall Weather Station, Northampton 2007. http://www.northantsweather.org.uk/ Accessed 2008.
Marshall DJ, Walker RI, Cullis BR, Luff MF. The effect of footrot on body weight and wool growth of sheep. Aust Vet J 1991;68:45–49. Links
Punch PI, Costa ND, Chambers ED, et al. Plasma and tear concentrations of antibacterials administered parenterally to cattle. Res Vet Sci 1985;39:179–187. Links
Welsh EM, Nolan AM. Effect of flunixin meglumine on the thresholds to mechanical stimulation in healthy and lame sheep. Res Vet Sci 1995;58:61–66. Links
Kaler J, Green LE. Farmers' practices and factors associated with the prevalence of all lameness and lameness attributed to interdigital dermatitis and footrot in sheep flocks in England in 2004. Prev Vet Med 2009;92:52–59. Links
Kaler J, Green LE. Recognition of lameness and decisions to catch for inspection among sheep farmers and specialists in GB. BMC Vet Res 2008;4:41.
Actions (login required)