How is mortality affected by money, marriage, and stress?
Gardner, Jonathan and Oswald, Andrew J. . (2004) How is mortality affected by money, marriage, and stress? Journal of Health Economics, Vol.23 (No.6). pp. 1181-1207. ISSN 0167-6296
WRAP_Oswald_mortalitymarchos2004.pdf - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2004.03.002 ...
It is believed that the length of a person’s life depends on a mixture of economic and social factors. Yet the relative importance of these is still debated. We provide recent British evidence that marriage has a strong positive effect on longevity. Economics matters less. After controlling for health at the start of the 1990s, we cannot find reliable evidence that income affects the probability of death in the subsequent decade. Although marriage keeps people alive, it does not appear to work through a reduction of stress levels. Greater levels of psychological distress (as measured by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) stress scores) cannot explain why unmarried people die younger. For women, however, we do find that mental strain itself is dangerous. High GHQ stress scores help to predict the probability of an early death.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Subjects:||H Social Sciences > HC Economic History and Conditions
H Social Sciences > HQ The family. Marriage. Woman
|Divisions:||Faculty of Social Sciences > Economics|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Marriage -- Great Britain, Longevity -- Great Britain, Mortality -- Great Britain|
|Journal or Publication Title:||Journal of Health Economics|
|Date:||29 July 2004|
|Page Range:||pp. 1181-1207|
|Access rights to Published version:||Open Access|
|References:||Adams, P., Hurd, D., McFadden, D., Merrill, A., Ribeiro, T., 2003. Healthy, wealthy, and wise? Tests for direct causal paths between health and socioeconomic status. Journal of Econometrics 112, 3-56. Adda, J., Chandola, T., Marmot, M., 2003. Socio-economic Status and Health: Causality and Pathways. Journal of Econometrics 112, 57-63. Attanasio, O., Emmerson, C., 2001. Differential mortality in the UK. IFS working paper WP01/16. Institute for Fiscal Studies, London. Ben-Shlomo, Y., Davey Smith, G., Shipley, M., Marmot, M. G., 1993. Magnitude and causes of mortality differences between married and unmarried men. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 47(3), 200-205. Bowling, A., 1997 Measuring Health: A Review of Quality of Life Scales. 2nd ed. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press. Daly, M. C., Duncan, G. J., Kaplan, G. A., Lynch, J. W., 1998. Macro-to-micro links in the relation between income inequality and mortality. The Millbank Quarterly 76(3), 315-339. Deaton, A., 2003. Health, Inequality, and Economic Development. Journal of Economic Literature 41(1), 113-158. Deaton, A., Paxson, C., 2001. Mortality, income, and income inequality over time in Britain and the United States. NBER working paper 8534. NBER, Cambridge Mass. Duleep, H. O., 1986. Measuring the effect of income on adult mortality using longitudinal administrative record data. The Journal of Human Resources 21(2), 238- 251. Ettner, S. L., 1996. New evidence on the relationship between income and health. Journal of Health Economics 15(1), 67-85. Farr, W., 1858. The influence of marriage on the mortality of the French people, in: Hastings, G. W. (Eds), Transactions of the National Association for the Promotion of Social Sciences. John W. Parker and Son, London, pp. 504-513. Feldman, J., Makuc, D. M., Kleinman, J. C., Coroni-Huntley, J., 1989. National trends in educational differences in mortality. American Journal of Epidemiology 129(5), 919-933. Fredman, L., Magaziner, J., Hebel, J. R., Hawkes, W., Zimmerman, S. I., 1999. Depressive symptoms and 6-year mortality among elderly community-dwelling women. Epidemiology 10(1), 54-9. Goldman, N., 1993. Marriage selection and mortality patterns: Inferences and fallacies. Demography 30(2), 189-208. Gove, W. R., 1973. Sex, marital status, and mortality. American Journal of Sociology 79(1), 45-67. Gravelle, H., 1998. How much of the relation between population mortality and unequal distributions of income is a statistical artefact? British Medical Journal 314(7128), 382-385. Gravelle, H., Wildman, J., Sutton, M., 2002. Income, income inequality and health: What can we learn from aggregate data? Social Science and Medicine 54(4), 577-589. House, J. S., Robbins, C., Metzner, H. L., 1982. The association of social relationships and activities with mortality: Prospective evidence from the Tecumseh community health study. American Journal of Epidemiology 116(1), 123-140. Hu, Y., Goldman, N., 1990. Mortality differentials by marital status: An international comparison. Demography 27(2), 233-250. Huppert, F. A., Whittington, J. E., 1995. Symptoms of psychological distress predict 7-year mortality. Psychological Medicine 25 (5), 1073-86. Idler, E. L., Kasl, S., 1991. Health perceptions and survival: Do global evaluations of health status really predict mortality? Journal of Gerontology 46(2), S55-S65. Iversen, L., Andersen, O., Andersen, P. K., Christoffersen, K., Keiding, N., 1987. Unemployment and mortality in Denmark, 1970-80. British Medical Journal 295, 879-884. Kuh, D. J. L., Wadsworth, M. E. J., 1993. Physical health status at 36 years in a British national birth cohort. Social Science and Medicine 37(7), 905-916. Lahelma, E., Valkonen, T., 1990. Health and social inequities in Finland and elsewhere. Social Science and Medicine 31(3), 257-265. Le Grand, J., 1987. Inequality in health: Some international comparisons. European Economic Review 31, 182-191. Lee, L., 1982. Health and wage: A simultaneous equation model with multiple discrete indicators. International Economic Review 23(1), 199-221. Lillard, L. A., Panis, C. W. A., 1996. Marital status and mortality: The role of health. Demography 33(3), 313-327. Lillard, L. A., Waite, L. J., 1995. 'Till death do us part: Marital disruption and mortality. American Journal of Sociology 100(5), 1131-1156. Luft, H. S., 1975. The impact of poor health on earnings. The Review of Economics and Statistics 57(1), 43-57. Lynch, J. W., Davey Smith, G., Hillemeier, M., Shaw, M., Raghunathan, T., Kaplan, G. A., 2001. Income inequality, the psycho-social environment and health: Comparisons of wealthy nations. The Lancet 358(9277), 289-304. Macleod J., Smith G. D., Heslop P., Metcalfe C., Carroll D., Hart C., 2001. Are the effects of psychosocial exposures attributable to confounding? Evidence from a prospective observational study on psychological stress and mortality. Journal of Epidemiological and Community Health 55(12), 878-84. Manor, O., Eisenbach, Z., Israeli, A., Friedlander, Y., 2000. Mortality differentials among women: The Israel longitudinal mortality study. Social Science and Medicine 51(8), 1175-1188. Marmot, M. G., Davey Smith, G., Stansfeld, S., Patel, C., North, F., Head, J., White, I., Brunner, E., Feeney, A., 1991. Health inequalities among British civil servants: The Whitehall II study. The Lancet 337, 1387-1393. Marmot, M. G., Shipley, M. J., Rose, G., 1984. Inequalities in death - Specific explanations of a general pattern? The Lancet, 1003-1006. Martikainen, P., Adda, J., Ferrie, J. E., Davey Smith, G., Marmot, M., 2003. Effects of income and wealth on GHQ depression and poor self rated health in white collar women and men in the Whitehall II study. Journal of Epidemiological and Community Health 57(9), 718-23. Martikainen, P. T., Valkonen, T., 1996. Excess mortality of unemployed men and women during a period of rapidly increasing unemployment. The Lancet 348, 909- 912. May, M., McCarron, P., Stansfeld, S., Ben-Shlomo, Y., Gallacher, J., Yarnell, J., Davey Smith, G., Elwood, P., Ebrahim, S., 2002. Does psychological distress predict the risk of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack? The Caerphilly Study. Stroke 33(1), 5-6. McDonough, P., Duncan, G. J., Williams, D., House, J., 1997. Income dynamics and adult mortality in the United States, 1972 through 1989. American Journal of Public Health 87(9), 1476-1483. McFadden, D. F., 1974. The measurement of urban travel demand. Journal of Public Economics 3, 303-328. Menchik, P. L., 1993. Economic status as a determinant of mortality among black and white older men: Does poverty kill? Population Studies 47(3), 427-436. Moore, D. E., Hayward, M. D., 1990. Occupational careers and mortality of elderly men. Demography 27(1), 31-53. Morris, J. K., Cook, D. G., Shaper, A. G., 1994. Loss of employment and mortality. British Medical Journal 308, 1135-1139. Moser, K. A., Fox, A. J., Jones, D. R., 1984. Unemployment and mortality in the OPCS longitudinal study. The Lancet, 1324-1328. Murray, J. E., 2000. Marital protection and marital selection: Evidence from a historical-prospective sample of American men. Demography 37(4), 511-521. Rahman, O., 1993. Excess mortality for the unmarried in rural Bangladesh. International Journal of Epidemiology 22(3), 445-456. Rodgers, G. B., 1979. Income and inequality as determinants of mortality: An international cross-section analysis. Population Studies 33(2), 343-351. Rogers, R. G., 1995. Marriage, sex and mortality. Journal of Marriage and the Family 57(2), 515-526. Schoenbach, V. J., Kaplan, B. H., Fredman, L., Kleinbaum, D. G., 1986. Social ties and mortality in Evans County, Georgia. American Journal of Epidemiology 123, 577-591. Smith, J. P., 1999. Healthy bodies and thick wallets: The dual relation between health and economic status. Journal of Economic Perspectives 13(2), 145-166. Taylor, M. F., Brice, J., Buck, N., Prentice-Lane, E., 2002. British Household Panel Survey User Manual. University of Essex, Colchester. Thatcher, A. R., 1999. The long-term pattern of adult mortality and the highest attained age. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society (Series A) 162(1), 5-43. Wilkinson, R. G., 1996. Unhealthy Societies: The Afflictions of Inequality. Routledge, London. Wilson, C. M., Oswald, A. J., 2002. How does marriage affect physical and psychological health? A survey of the longitudinal evidence. Mimeo. Department of Economics, University of Warwick. Whooley, M. A., Browner, W. S., 1998. Association between depressive symptoms and mortality in older women. Archives of Internal Medicine 58(19), 2129-35. Wolfson, M., Rowe, G., Gentleman, J. F., Tomiak, M., 1993. Career Earnings and Death: A Longitudinal Analysis of Older Canadian Men. Journal of Gerontology 48(4), 167-179.|
Actions (login required)