Early visual tagging : effects of target-distractor similarity and old age on search, subitization, and counting
Watson, Derrick G., Maylor, Elizabeth A., Allen, Gareth E. J. and Bruce, Lucy A. M.. (2007) Early visual tagging : effects of target-distractor similarity and old age on search, subitization, and counting. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, Vol.33 (No.3). pp. 549-569. ISSN 0096-1523Full text not available from this repository.
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-1522.214.171.1249
Three experiments examined the effects of target- distractor (T-D) similarity and old age on the efficiency of searching for single targets and enumerating multiple targets. Experiment 1 showed that increasing T-D similarity selectively reduced the efficiency of enumerating small (< 4) numerosities (subitizing) but had little effect on enumerating larger numerosities (counting) or searching for a single target. Experiment 2 provided converging evidence using fixation frequencies and a finer range of T-D similarities. Experiment 3 showed that T-D similarity had a greater impact on older than on young adults, but only for subitizing. The data are discussed in terms of the mechanisms and architecture of early visual tagging, dissociable effects in search and enumeration, and the effects of aging on visual processing.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Subjects:||B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology|
|Divisions:||Faculty of Science > Psychology|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Visual perception, Eye — Movements, Human information processing -- Age factors, Cognition in old age, Cognition — Age factors, Number concept, Numeration|
|Journal or Publication Title:||Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance|
|Publisher:||American Psychological Association/Educational Publishing Foundation|
|Number of Pages:||21|
|Page Range:||pp. 549-569|
|Funder:||Economic and Social Research Council (Great Britain) (ESRC)|
|Grant number:||R000239180 (ESRC)|
|References:||Allen, R., McGeorge, P., Pearson, D. G., & Milne, A. (2006). Multipletarget tracking: A role for working memory? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59, 1101–1116. Atkinson, J., Campbell, F. W., & Francis, M. R. (1976). The magic number 4+0: A new look at visual numerosity judgments. Perception, 5, 327– 334. Bauer, B., Jolicoeur, P., & Cowan, W. B. (1996). Visual search for color targets that are or are not linearly separable from distractors. Vision Research, 36, 1439–1466. Carter, E. C., & Carter, R. C. (1981). Color and conspicuousness. Optical Society of America, 71, 723–729. Carter, R. C. (1982). Visual search with color. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 8, 127–136. Cerella, J. (1985). Information processing rates in the elderly. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 67–83. Cohen, J. D., Romero, R. D., Servan-Schreiber, D., & Farah, M. J. (1994). Mechanisms of spatial attention: The relation of macrostructure to microstructure in parietal neglect. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 6, 377–387. Dehaene, S., & Cohen, L. (1994). Dissociable mechanisms of subitizing and counting: Neuropsychological evidence from simultanagnosic patients. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 20, 958–975. Duncan, J., & Humphreys, G. W. (1989). Visual search and stimulus similarity. Psychological Review, 96, 433–458. Duncan, J., & Humphreys, G. W. (1992). Beyond the search surface: Visual search and attentional engagement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 18, 578–588. Farmer, E. W., & Taylor, R. M. (1980). Visual search through visual displays: Effects of target– background similarity and background uniformity. Perception & Psychophysics, 27, 267–272. Gallistel, C. R., & Gelman, R. (1992). Preverbal and verbal counting and computation. Cognition, 44, 43–74. Greene, H. H., & Rayner, K. (2001). Eye movements and familiarity effects in visual search. Vision Research, 41, 3763–3773. Heim, A. W. (1968). AH4 test. Windsor, England: NFER-Nelson. Hooge, I. T. C., & Frens, M. A. (2000). Inhibition of saccade return (ISR): Spatio-temporal properties of saccade programming. Vision Research, 40, 3415–3426. Horn, J. L., & Cattell, R. B. (1967). Age differences in fluid and crystallized intelligence. Acta Psychologica, 26, 107–129. Humphreys, G. W., & Mu¨ller, H. J. (1993). Search via recursive rejection (SERR): A connectionist model of visual search. Cognitive Psychology, 25, 43–110. Humphreys, G. W., Olson, A., Romani, C., & Riddoch, M. J. (1996). Competitive mechanisms of selection by space and object: A neuropsychological approach. In A. F. Kramer, M. G. H. Coles, & G. D. Logan (Eds.), Converging operations in the study of visual selective attention (pp. 365–393). New York: Psychonomic Press. Hunter, W. S., & Sigler, M. (1940). The span of visual discrimination as a function of time and intensity of stimulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 26, 160–179. Kaufman, E. L., Lord, M. W., Reese, T. W., & Volkman, J. (1949). The discrimination of visual number. American Journal of Psychology, 62, 498–525. Klahr, D. (1973). Quantification processes. In W. G. Chase (Ed.), Visual information processing (pp. 3–34). New York: Academic Press. Klein, R. (1988, August 4). Inhibitory tagging system facilitates visual search. Nature, 334, 430–431. Klein, R. M. (2000). Inhibition of return. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 138–146. Lee, D. K., Itti, L., Koch, C., & Braun, J. (1999). Attention activates winner-take-all competition among visual filters. Nature Neuroscience, 2, 375–381. Logan, G. D., & Zbrodoff, N. J. (2003). Subitizing and similarity: Toward a pattern-matching theory of enumeration. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10, 676–682. Madden, D. J., Pierce, T. W., & Allen, P. A. (1992). Adult age differences in attentional allocation during memory search. Psychology and Aging, 7, 594–601. Mandler, G., & Shebo, B. J. (1982). Subitizing: An analysis of its component processes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 111, 1–22. Maylor, E. A., & Watson, D. G. (2005). Aging and the ability to ignore irrelevant information in visual search and enumeration tasks. In J. Duncan, L. Phillips, & P. McLeod (Eds.), Measuring the mind: Speed, control, and age (pp. 59–87). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Nagy, A. L., & Sanchez, R. R. (1990). Critical color differences determined with a visual search task. Journal of the Optical Society of America, Series A, 7, 1209–1217. Olds, E. S., Cowan, W. B., & Jolicoeur, P. (2000). The time-course of pop-out search. Vision Research, 40, 891–912. O’Regan, J. K., Rensink, R. A., & Clark, J. J. (1999, March 4). Changeblindness as a result of “mudsplashes.” Nature, 398, 34. Plude, D. J., & Doussard-Roosevelt, J. A. (1989). Aging, selective attention, and feature integration. Psychology and Aging, 4, 98–105. Posner, M. I., & Cohen, Y. (1984). Components of visual orienting. In H. Bouma & D. G. Bouwhuis (Eds.), Attention and performance X: Control of language processes (pp. 531–556). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Pylyshyn, Z. W. (1989). The role of location indexes in spatial perception: A sketch of the FINST spatial-index model. Cognition, 32, 65–97. Pylyshyn, Z. W. (2000). Situating vision in the real world. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 197–207. Pylyshyn, Z. W. (2001). Visual indexes, preconceptual objects, and situated vision. Cognition, 80, 127–158. Pylyshyn, Z. W., Burkell, J., Fisher, B., Sears, C., Schmidt, W., & Trick, L. (1994). Multiple parallel access in visual attention. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48, 260–283. Pylyshyn, Z. W., & Storm, R. W. (1988). Tracking multiple independent targets: Evidence for a parallel tracking mechanism. Spatial Vision, 3, 179–197. Rastle, K., & Davis, M. H. (2002). On the complexities of measuring naming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 28, 307–314. Raven, J. C., Raven, J., & Court, J. H. (1988). The Mill Hill Vocabulary scale. London: H. K. Lewis. Rensink, R. A. (2000). The dynamic representation of scenes. Visual Cognition, 7, 17–42. Salthouse, T. A. (1991). Theoretical perspectives on cognitive aging. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Scialfa, C. T., Esau, S. P., & Joffe, K. M. (1998). Age, target– distractor similarity, and visual search. Experimental Aging Research, 24, 337–358. Scialfa, C. T., & Harpur, L. L. (1994). Effects of similarity and duration on age differences in visual search. Canadian Journal on Aging, 13, 51–65. Shen, J., Reingold, E. M., & Pomplun, M. (2000). Distractor ratio influences patterns of eye movements during visual search. Perception, 29, 241–250. Simon, T. J., Peterson, S., Patel, G., & Sathian, K. (1998). Do the magnocellular and parvocellular pathways contribute differentially to subitizing and counting? Perception & Psychophysics, 60, 451–464. Simon, T. J., & Vaishnavi, S. (1996). Subitizing and counting depend on different attentional mechanisms: Evidence from visual enumeration in afterimages. Perception & Psychophysics, 58, 915–926. Simons, D. J., & Levin, D. T. (1997). Change blindness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 1, 261–267. Simons, D. J., & Levin, D. T. (1998). Failure to detect changes to people during a real-world interaction. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 5, 644–649. Sliwinski, M. (1997). Aging and counting speed: Evidence for process specific slowing. Psychology and Aging, 12, 38–49. Svenson, O., & Sjo¨berg, K. (1983). Speeds of subitizing and counting processes in different age groups. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 142, 203–211. Treisman, A. M., & Gelade, G. (1980). A feature-integration theory of attention. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 97–136. Treisman, A., & Gormican, S. (1988). Feature analysis in early vision: Evidence from search asymmetries. Psychological Review, 95, 15–48. Treisman, A., & Sato, S. (1990). Conjunction search revisited. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 16, 459–478. Trick, L. M., & Enns, J. T. (1997a). Clusters precede shapes in perceptual organization. Psychological Science, 8, 124–129. Trick, L. M., & Enns, J. T. (1997b). Measuring preattentive processes: When is pop-out not enough? Visual Cognition, 4, 163–198. Trick, L. M., & Pylyshyn, Z. W. (1993). What enumeration studies can show us about spatial attention: Evidence for limited capacity preattentive processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 19, 331–351. Trick, L. M., & Pylyshyn, Z. W. (1994). Why are small and large numbers enumerated differently? A limited-capacity preattentive stage in vision. Psychological Review, 101, 80–102. Watson, D. G., & Humphreys, G. W. (1999). The magic number four and temporo-parietal damage: Neurological impairments in counting targets amongst distractors. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 16, 609–629. Watson, D. G., & Maylor, E. A. (2006). Effects of color heterogeneity on subitization. Perception & Psychophysics, 68, 319–326. Watson, D. G., Maylor, E. A., & Bruce, L. A. M. (2005a). Effects of age on searching for and enumerating targets that cannot be detected efficiently. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58A, 1119–1142. Watson, D. G., Maylor, E. A., & Bruce, L. A. M. (2005b). Search, enumeration, and aging: Eye movement requirements cause ageequivalent performance in enumeration but not in search tasks. Psychology and Aging, 20, 226–240. Watson, D. G., Maylor, E. A., & Manson, N. J. (2002). Aging and enumeration: A selective deficit for the subitization of targets among distractors. Psychology and Aging, 17, 496–504. Wechsler, D. (1981). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale— Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation. Wender, K. F., & Rothkegel, R. (2000). Subitizing and its subprocesses. Psychological Research, 64, 81–92. Whiting, W. L., Madden, D. J., Pierce, T. W., & Allen, P. A. (2005). Searching from the top down: Ageing and attentional guidance during singleton detection. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58A, 72–97. Wolfe, J. M. (1994). Guided search 2.0: A revised model of visual search. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1, 202–238. Wolfe, J. M. (1998). Visual search. In H. Pashler (Ed.), Attention (pp. 13–74). Hove, England: Psychology Press. Wolfe, J. M. (2003). Moving towards solutions to some enduring controversies in visual search. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 70–76. Wolfe, J. M., Cave, K. R., & Franzel, S. L. (1989). Guided search: An alternative to the feature integration model for visual search. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 15, 419–433. Yantis, S. (1992). Multielement visual tracking: Attention and perceptual organization. Cognitive Psychology, 24, 295–340. Zelinsky, G. J., & Sheinberg, D. L. (1997). Eye movements during parallel–serial visual search. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 23, 244–262.|
Actions (login required)