Social and historical aspects of the assimilation of Christianity in Southeast Asia from 1500-1900 with reference to Thailand and the Philippines
Thanissaro, Phra Nicholas. (2009) Social and historical aspects of the assimilation of Christianity in Southeast Asia from 1500-1900 with reference to Thailand and the Philippines. Journal of Asian Mission, Vol.11 (No.1-2). pp. 31-55. ISSN 0119-3228
WRAP_Thanissaro_ie-040810-thanissaro_2009.pdf - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
Official URL: http://www.ataasia.com/journal-of-asian-mission.ht...
Though many have attempted to address the complexities of the encounter between Christianity and non-western societies, the literature has not dealt much with Southeast Asia. This article attempts to help fill that gap by examining some of the factors affecting the assimilation of Christianity in Southeast Asia by looking at two countries in detail: Thailand and the Philippines. These two countries offer strikingly different assimilation results. Thailand was not colonized when Christianity was introduced while in the Philippines colonization and Christianity were intimately linked. As a result, both Thailand and the Philippines are a study in contrasts.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Subjects:||B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BR Christianity|
|Divisions:||Faculty of Social Sciences > Institute of Education|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Thailand -- Church history, Philippines -- Church history, Southeast Asia -- Church history, Southeast Asia -- History, Southeast Asia -- Social conditions|
|Journal or Publication Title:||Journal of Asian Mission|
|Publisher:||Asia Graduate School of Theology|
|Page Range:||pp. 31-55|
|Status:||Not Peer Reviewed|
|References:||Anderson, G. H. 1976 Asian Voices in Christian Theology. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis. Appadurai, A. 1996 Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis, MN, University of Minnesota Press. Aquino de Belen, G. 1703 Manga panalangin pagtatagobilin sa caloloua nang tauong naghihingalo. (“Prayers with which to commend the soul of the dying person.”) Manila, RP: Compañia de Jesús por Nicolas Cruz Bagay. Barker, N. H. 1994 Flesh and Blood: Animistic Elements of the Passion of Christ in the Philippines. Paper presented to the European Conference of Philippine Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies, London. Barton, M. 2005 Rejection, Resistance and Resurrection: Speaking Out on Racism in the Church. London, UK: Darton, Longman and Todd. Belloc, H. 1920 Europe and the Faith: Sine auctoritate nulla vita. London, UK: Constable. Blancas de San José, P. F. 1610 Arte y reglas de la lengua tagala. (“A Grammar of the Tagalog Language.”) Bataan, por Tomas Pinpin. 1614 Librong Pinagpapalamnan yto nang aasalin nang tauong Christiano. (“Manual of Christian Conduct in Confession and Communion.”) Bataan, por Tomas Pinpin. Blanford, C. E. 1985 Chinese Churches in Thailand. Bangkok, TH: Suriyaban. Bright, B. 1965 Campus Crusade for Christ International. Orlando, FL: New Life. Bunchua, K. 1986 “Indigenization of Christianity in Thailand.” A paper presented at the conference “Christianity as an Indigenous Religion in Southeast Asia,” Cebu City, Joint American Council of Learned Societies and Social Science Research Council Committee on Southeast Asia. Burnett, D. 1996 The Spirit of Buddhism. Crowborough, East Sussex, UK: Monarch. 2003 “The Challenge of the Globalization of Buddhism.” In Sharing Jesus in the Buddhist World. D. Lim and S. Spaulding, eds. Pp. 1-18. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library. Caldwell, Larry W. 1999 “Towards the New Discipline of Ethnohermeneutics: Questioning the Relevancy of Western Hermeneutical Methods in the Asian Context.” Journal of Asian Mission 1:1 (March):21-43. 2006 “God’s Truth, Christianity, and Other Religions: Towards a Broader Understanding of Christian Conversion and Discipleship in the Asian Context.” A paper presented at the 2006 Asian Theological Seminary Forum on Theology, Manila, Philippines, February 23-24. Cannell, F. 1999 Power and Intimacy in the Christian Philippines. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Cate, P. 2004 “Response to The Christian Response to Buddhism.” In Christian Witness in Pluralistic Contexts in the 21st Century. E. Wan, ed. Pp. 170-172. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library. Chandler, D. 1983 A History of Cambodia. Boulder, CO: Westview. Chirino, P. 1890 Relación de las Islas Filipinas. The Philippines in 1600. Ramon Echevarría, trans. Manila, RP: Historical Conservation Society. Church of Christ in Thailand 1962 Thirty-three Points: Buddhist and Christian Teachings. Bangkok, TH: The Church of Christ in Thailand, Office of Christian Education and Literature. CIA 2008 World Factbook. Available at www.cia.gov/library/publications/theworld- factbook/fields/2122.html (accessed online May 29, 2008). Cohen, E. 1991 “Christianity and Buddhism in Thailand: The ‘Battle of the Axes’ and the ‘Contest of Power.’” Social Compass 382:115- 140. 1994 “Christianization and Indigenization: Contrasting Processes of Religious Adaptation in Thailand.” In Indigenous Responses to Western Christianity. S. Kaplan, ed. Pp. 29-55New York, NY: New York University. de la Costa, H. 1961 The Jesuits in the Philippines, 1581-1768. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Echauz, R. 1978 Apuntas historias de la isla de Negroes. (“Sketches of the Island of Negroes.”) D. V. Hart, trans. Athens, OH: Center for International Studies, Ohio University. Eisenstadt, S. N. 1982 “The Axial Age.” In Archives Européennes de Sociologie. 232:294-314. England, J. C. 1996 The Hidden History of Christianity: The Churches in the East before the Year 1500. Delhi, IN: Indian Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge/Hong Kong: Christian Conference of Asia. Fabian, J. 1983 Time and the Other: How Anthropology Makes Its Object. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Feltus, G. H. (ed.) 1936 Abstract of the Journal of Rev. Dan Beach Bradley: Medical Missionary in Siam 1835-1873. Oberlin, OH: The Multigraph Department of Pilgrim Church. Flanders, C. L. 2005 “About Face: Reorienting Thai Face for Soteriology and Mission.” Ph.D. dissertation, Fuller Theological Seminary, School of Intercultural Studies. Furtado, C. L. 1978 The Contribution of Dr. D. T. Niles to the Church Universal and Local. Madras, IN: Christian Literature Society. Geertz, C. 1988 Works and Lives: The Anthropologist as Author. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Griffiths, P. J. 1991 An Apology for Apologetics. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis. Hesselgrave, D. and E. Rommen 1989 Contextualization: Meanings, Methods and Models. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library. Hiebert, P. 1994 Anthropological Reflections on Missiological Issues. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker. Ishii, Y. 1968 “Church and State in Thailand.” Asian Survey 84:864-871. Javellana, R. 1984 “The Sources of Aquino de Belen’s Pasyon.” Philippine Studies 32:305-321. Johnson, A. R. 2002 “Wrapping the Good News for the Thai: Some Suggestions for a Contextualized Presentation of the Gospel in Thai Society.” A paper presented at the Southwest Annual Meeting of the Evangelical Missiological Society, Pasadena, CA. Johnson, M. 1988 “The Culture.” In An Ancient Nation on the Eve of a Modern Spectacle: South Korea. P. Iyer, ed. Time 10/CXXXII:48. Johnstone, P. and J. Mandryk 2001 Operation World: When We Pray God Works. Carlisle, UK: Paternoster. Kaplan, S. 1986 “The Africanization of Missionary Christianity: History and Typology.” Journal of Religion in Africa 163:166-186. Kennedy, D. J. 1996 Evangelism Explosion. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House. Kerkvliet, B. 1990 Everyday Politics in the Philippines: Class and Status Relations in a Central Luzon Village. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Keyes, C. F. 1993 “Why the Thai are not Christians: Buddhist and Christian Conversion in Thailand.” In Conversion to Christianity. R. W. Hefner, ed. Pp. 259-284. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Kirsch, A. T. 1981 “Notes on Thai Religion.” In Clues to Thai Culture. Bangkok, TH: Overseas Missionary Fellowship. Komin, S. 1991 Psychology of the Thai People: Value and Behaviour Patterns. Bangkok, TH: NIDA. Koyama, K. 1999 Water Buffalo Theology: Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Edition. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis. Küng, H. 1995 Christianity: The Religious Situation of our Time. London, UK: SCM. Lai, W. and M. Bruck 2001 Buddhism and Christianity: A Multicultural History of Their Dialogue. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis. Lantern, Z. 1986 “The Missionaries: Why Have They Failed So Miserably?” Bangkok Post, May 25. Lim, D. S. 2003 “Towards a Radical Contextualization Paradigm in Evangelizing Buddhists.” In Sharing Jesus in the Buddhist World. D. Lim and S. Spaulding, eds. Pp. 71-94. Pasadena, CA, William Carey Library. Lurry, B. 2004 “Behind the White-Washed Walls.” In Peoples of the Buddhist World: A Christian Prayer Guide. P. Hattaway, ed. Pp. 233- 244. Carlisle, UK: Piquant Editions. Mejudhon, U. 1997 “The Way of Meekness: Being Christian and Thai in the Thai Way.” D.Miss. dissertation, Ashbury Theological Seminary, E. Stanley Jones School of World Mission and Evangelism. 2003a “Evangelism in the New Millenium: An Integrated Model of Evangelism to Buddhists using Theology, Anthropology and Religious Studies.” In Sharing Jesus in the Buddhist World. D. Lim and S. Spaulding, eds. Pp. 95-120. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library. 2003b “The Ritual of Reconciliation in Thai Culture: Discipling New Converts.” A paper presented at SEANEt, Chiangmai, Thailand. 2004a “Love Letters from Afar.” In Peoples of the Buddhist World: A Christian Prayer Guide. P. Hattaway, ed. Pp. 298-308. Carlisle, UK: Piquant Editions. 2004b The Thai Way of Meekness, In Peoples of the Buddhist World: A Christian Prayer Guide. P. Hattaway, ed. Pp. 279-286. Carlisle, UK: Piquant Editions. Mischung, R. 1980 “Religion in a Cgaw Sgaw Karen Village of Western Upland Chiang Mai Province.” Unpublished research report to the National Research Council of Thailand. Neill, S. 1986 A History of Christian Missions Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin. Netland, H. A. 1994 “Truth, Authority and Modernity: Shopping for the Truth in a Supermarket of Worldviews.” In Faith and Modernity. P. Sampson, V. Samuel and C. Sugden, eds., Oxford, UK: Regnum. Payne, S. G. 1973 A History of Spain and Portugal. 2 volumes. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. Phelan, J. L. 1959 The Hispanicization of the Philippines: Spanish Aims and Southeast Asian Responses 1565-1700. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. Pinpin, T. 1610 Librong Pagaaralan nang manga Tagalog nang uicang Castilla. (“Book by which Tagalogs can learn Castillian.”) In La primera imprenta en Filipinas. M. A. y. Cuerva, ed. Pp. 235- 359. Manila, RP: Germania. Polo, J. B. 1988 Rethinking Philippine Popular Symbols: Moments of Domination and Resistance in the Province of Leyte. Quezon City, RP: The Research Forum. Pro Mundi Vita Centrum Informationis 1973 Thailand in Transition: The Church in a Buddhist Country. Brussels, BE: Pro Mundi Vita International Research and Information Centre. Rafael, V. L. 2001 Contracting Colonialism: Translation and Christian Conversion in Tagalog Society under Early Spanish Rule. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Rajadhon, P. A. 1968 Essays on Thai Folklore. Bangkok, TH: Social Sciences Association Press of Thailand. Ranger, T. 2003 “Evangelical Christianity and Democracy in Africa: A Continental Comparison.” Journal of Religion in Africa 331:112-117. Reynolds, F. E. 1977 “Civic Religion and National Community in Thailand.” Journal of Asian Studies 362:267-281. Rizal, J. 1887 Noli Me Tanger. (“The Lost Eden.”) Leon Ma. Guerrero, trans. Hong Kong and London, UK: Q. C. R. Martinez. Robbins, J. 2001 “Introduction: Global Religions, Pacific Island Transformations.” The Journal of Ritual Studies 157(12):7-12. Russell, S. D. 1999 Christianity in the Philippines. Available at http://www. seasite.niu.edu/crossroads/russell/christianity.htm (accessed online March 18, 2008). Sanneh, L. 2003 Whose Religion is Christianity? The Gospel Beyond the West. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. Schumacher, J. 1979 “The Manila Synodal Tradition: A Brief History.” Philippine Studies 27:285-348. Scott, W. H. 1982 Cracks in the Parchment Curtain. Quezon City, RP: New Day. 1983 “Oripun and Alipin in the Philippines.” In Slavery, Bondage and Dependency in Southeast Asia. A. Reid, ed. Pp. 138-155. St. Lucia and New York, University of Queensland. Seamands, J. 2000 Tell it Well: Communicating the Gospel Across Cultures. Chennai, IN: Mission Education Books. Shenk, W. R. 1981 “Rufus Anderson and Henry Venn: A Special Relationship?” Internatinal Bulletin of Missionary Research, 54:168-172. Smith, A. G. 2003 “Missiological Implications of the Key Contrasts between Buddhism and Christianity.” In Sharing Jesus in the Buddhist World. D. Lim and S. Spaulding, eds. Pp. 31-55. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library. 2004a “The Christian Response to Buddhism.” In Christian Witness in Pluralistic Contexts in the 21st Century. E. Wan, ed. Pp. 135- 168. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library. 2004b “Insights for Missions to Theravada Buddhists.” In Peoples of the Buddhist World: A Christian Prayer Guide. P. Hattaway, ed. Pp. 201-210. Carlisle, UK: Piquant Editions. Steinberg, D. J. 2000 The Philippines: A Singular and a Plural Place. Oxford, UK: Westview. Tan, K. S. 2000 “Evangelical Missiology from an East Asian Perspective: A Study on Christian Encounter with People of Other Faiths.” In Global Missiology for the 21st Century: The Iguassu Dialogue. W. Taylor, ed. Pp. 295-306. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker. 2003 “Elements of a Biblical and Genuine Missionary Encounter with Diaspora Chinese Buddhists in Southeast Asia.” In Sharing Jesus in the Buddhist World. D. Lim and S. Spaulding, eds. Pp. 19-30. Pasadena, CA, William Carey Library. Toynbee, A. J. 1957 Christianity Among the Religions of the World. New York, NY: Schribner. Trouillot, M. R. 1991 “Anthropology and the Savage Slot: The Poetics and Politics of Otherness.” In Recapturing Anthropology: Working in the Present. R. G. Fox, ed. Pp. 17-44. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press. Volf, M. 1994 “The Unique Christ in the Challenge of Modernity.” In The Unique Christ in our Pluralist World. B. Nicholls, ed. Pp. 96- 106. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker. Walls, A. 1998 “Christianity.” In A New Handbook of Living Religions. J. Hinnells, ed. Pp. 59-92. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin. Wisely, T. 1984 “Dynamic Biblical Christianity in the Buddhist/Marxist Context: Northeast Thailand.” Ph.D. dissertation, Fuller Theological Seminary, School of World Mission. Wyatt, D. K. 1984 Thailand: A Short History. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Zehner, E. 2005 “Orthodox Hybridities: Anti-Syncretism and Localization in the Evangelical Christianity of Thailand.” Anthropological Quarterly 783:585-617. Zialcita, F. N. 1986 “Popular Interpretations of the Passion of Christ.” Philippine Sociological Review 34:56-62.|
Actions (login required)