Factors associated with female genital mutilation in Burkina Faso and its policy implications
Karmaker, Bue, Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin, Chung, Donna and Clarke, Aileen, 1955-. (2011) Factors associated with female genital mutilation in Burkina Faso and its policy implications. International Journal for Equity in Health, Vol.10 (No.20). ISSN 1475-9276
WRAP_Clarke_1475-9276-10-20.pdf - Published Version - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-9276-10-20
Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) usually undertaken between the ages of 1-9 years and is widely
practised in some part of Africa and by migrants from African countries in other parts of the world. Laws prohibit
FGM in almost every country. FGM can cause immediate complications (pain, bleeding and infection) and delayed
complications (sexual, obstetric, psychological problems). Several factors have been associated with an increased
likelihood of FGM. In Burkina Faso, the prevalence of FGM appears to have increased in recent years.
Methods: We investigated social, demographic and economic factors associated with FGM in Burkina Faso using
the 2003 Demographic Health Survey (DHS). The DHS is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey
(multistage stratified random sampling of households) of women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Associations
between potential risk factors and the prevalence of FGM were explored using c2 and t-tests and Mann Whitney
U-test as appropriate. Logistic regression modelling was used to investigate social, demographic and economic risk
factors associated with FGM.
Main outcome measures: i) whether a woman herself had had FGM; ii) whether she had one or more daughters
Results: Data were available on 12,049 women. Response rates by region were at least 90%. Women interviewed
were representative of the underlying populations of the different regions of Burkina Faso. Seventy seven percent
(9267) of the women interviewed had had FGM. 7336 women had a daughter of whom 2216 (30.2%) had a
daughter with FGM and 334 (4.5%) said that they intended that their daughter should have it. Univariate analysis
showed that age, religion, wealth, ethnicity, literacy, years of education, household affluence, region and who had
responsibility for health care decisions in the household had (RHCD) were all significantly related to the two
outcomes (p < 0.01). Multivariate analysis stratified by religion mainly confirmed these findings, however, education
is significantly associated with a reduced likelihood of FGM only for Christian women.
Conclusions and Policy implications: Factors associated with FGM are varied and complex. Younger women and
those from specific groups and religions are less likely to have had FGM. A higher level of education may be
protective for women from certain religions. Policies should capitalize on these findings and religious leaders
should be involved in continuing programmes of action.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Subjects:||G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GN Anthropology|
|Divisions:||Faculty of Medicine > Warwick Medical School > Health Sciences > Population, Evidence & Technologies (PET) > Warwick Evidence
Faculty of Social Sciences > School of Health and Social Studies
Faculty of Medicine > Warwick Medical School > Health Sciences
Faculty of Medicine > Warwick Medical School
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Female circumcision -- Burkina Faso|
|Journal or Publication Title:||International Journal for Equity in Health|
|Publisher:||BioMed Central Ltd.|
|Official Date:||18 May 2011|
|Access rights to Published version:||Open Access|
1. UNFPA (United Nations Population Fund): Promoting Gender Equality.
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