Sharing the atmosphere : a proposal for an equitable and sustainable global trading scheme for greenhouse gas emissions
Bührs, Ton (2010) Sharing the atmosphere : a proposal for an equitable and sustainable global trading scheme for greenhouse gas emissions. Working Paper. University of Warwick, Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation.
WRAP_Buhrs_26410.pdf - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
Official URL: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/csgr/research/wo...
An emissions trading scheme is likely to be an important component of the post-Kyoto global regime for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, primarily for economic reasons. Like most tradable permit schemes that have thus far been adopted, notably in the United States and Europe , it is expected that a global greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme will be based on the ‘grandfathering principle’, allocating entitlements to emitters on the basis of existing levels of emissions. The paper argues against this common practice as being ethically problematic and, more broadly, that the desirability of tradable permit schemes depends in large part on how social and political implications have been incorporated into their design. A case is made for the allocation of emission entitlements on an equal per capita basis to all individuals, but for the management of entitlements by specially designated community bodies (Community Carbon Trusts) on behalf of citizens. Such an approach, based on the notion of ‘individuals-in-community’, is not only ethically more defensible, but also has the potential to enhance local/regional capacity to mitigate and adapt to climate change, to promote sustainable development, and to enhance democracy, without compromising the economic rationale (cost-efficiency) for the adoption of emissions trading.
|Item Type:||Working or Discussion Paper (Working Paper)|
|Subjects:||H Social Sciences > HC Economic History and Conditions|
|Divisions:||Faculty of Social Sciences > Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Emissions trading, Climate change mitigation, Sustainable development, Social planning|
|Series Name:||Working Papers|
|Publisher:||University of Warwick|
|Place of Publication:||Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation|
|Status:||Not Peer Reviewed|
|Access rights to Published version:||Open Access|
|References:||Adams, W. M. (1990), Green Development : Environment and Sustainability in the Third World. London ; New York: Routledge. Bachram, Heidi (2004), "Climate Fraud and Carbon Colonialism: The New Trade in Greenhouse Gases", Capitalism Nature Socialism, Vol.15, No.4, pp.5-20. Baumert, Kevin A., Timothy Herzog and Jonathan Pershing (2005), Navigating the Numbers. Greenhouse Gas Data and International Climate Policy. World Resources Institute. Baumert, Kevin A., James F. Perkaus and Nancy Kete (2003), "Great Expectations: Can International Emissions Trading Deliver an Equitable Climate Regime?", Climate Policy, Vol.3, No.2, pp.137-148. Baumol, William J. and Wallace E. Oates (1988, 2nd ed.), The Theory of Environmental Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Beck, Ulrich (1992), Risk Society. Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage Publications. Beckerman, Wilfred and Joanna Pasek (1995), "The Equitable International Allocation of Tradable Carbon Emission Permits", Global Environmental Change, Vol.5, No.5, pp.405-413. Beitz, Charles R. (1999), "International Liberalism and Distributive Justice: A Survey of Recent Thought", World Politics, Vol.51, No.2, pp.269-296. Bertram, Geoffrey (1992), "Tradeable Emission Permits and the Control of Greenhouse Gases", The Journal of Development Studies, Vol.28, No.3, pp.423-446. Bertram, I.G., R.J. Stephens and C.C. Wallace (1990), Economic Instruments and the Greenhouse Effect. Working Paper Series 3/90. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington. Bührs, Ton (2004), "Sharing Environmental Space: The Role of Law, Economics and Politics", Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Vol.47, No.3, pp.431- 449. Bulkeley, H. and M. M. Betsill (2005), "Rethinking Sustainable Cities: Multilevel Governance and the 'Urban' Politics of Climate Change", Environmental Politics, Vol.14, No.1, pp.42-63. Bulkeley, Harriet and Susanne C. Moser (2007), "Responding to Climate Change: Governance and Social Action Beyond Kyoto", Global Environmental Politics, Vol.7, No.2, pp.1-10. Caney, Simon (2002), "Debate a Reply to Miller", Political Studies, Vol.50, No.5, pp.978- 983. Carley, Michael and Philippe Spapens (1998), Sharing the World: Sustainable Living and Global Equity in the 21st Century. London: Earthscan. Chicago Climate Exchange Overview, http://www.chicagoclimateexchange.com. (Accessed: 18 August 2009). Dahl, Robert A. (1985), A Preface to Economic Democracy. Berkeley: University of California Press. Daly, Herman E., John B. Cobb and Clifford W. Cobb (1989), For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy toward Community, the Environment, and a Sustainable Future. Boston: Beacon Press. Davies, Nick (2007), Power Firms Accused of Emissions Trade Cheating, The Guardian, 3 December, http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2007/dec/03/climatechange.greenpol itics1 Davies, Nick and David Adam (2007), Abuse and Incompetence in Climate Fight, The Guardian Weekly, 8 June, p.5. De Jonge, Walter, Joke Van Assche and Bernard Mazijn (2001), Onderzoek Naar De Mogelijkheden En Beperkingen Van Het Concept Milieugebruiksruimte. Eindrapport 2001. Gent: CDO-RUG, Centrum voor Duurzame Ontwikkeling, Universiteit Gent. DeWitt, John and Marian Mlay (1999), "Community-Based Environmental Protection: Encouraging Civic Environmentalism", in Sexton, K., A. Marcus, K. W. Easter and T. D. Burkhardt (eds.), Better Environmental Decisions. Strategies for Governments, Businesses and Communities. Washington D.C.: Island Press, pp.353-376. Dobson, Andrew (1998), Justice and the Environment : Conceptions of Environmental Sustainability and Theories of Distributive Justice. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press. Dryzek, John S. (1995), "Democracy and Environmental Policy Instruments", in Eckersley, R. (ed.) Markets, the State and the Environment: Towards Integration. Melbourne: Macmillan, pp.294-308. Dunn, Seth and Christopher Flavin (2002), "Moving the Climate Change Agenda Forward", in Flavin, C., H. French and G. Gardner (eds.), State of the World 2002. New York and London: W. W. Norton & Company, pp.24-50. Durning, Alan B. (1989), "Mobilizing the Grassroots", in al., L. R. B. e. (ed.) State of the World 1989. New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company, pp.154-173. Euraktiv (2005), Climate Change - EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS), http://www.euractiv.com/Article?tcmuri=tcm:29-133629- 16&type=LinksDossier. (Accessed: 20 May 2005). European Climate Exchange http://www.ecx.eu/. (Accessed: 18 August 2009). Fleming, David (2007), Energy and the Common Purpose. Descending the Energy Staircase with Tradable Energy Quotas (Teqs). London: The Lean Economy Connection. Global Commons Institute (2008), Carbon Countdown: The Campaign for Contraction and Convergence. London: Global Commons Institute. http://www.gci.org.uk/kite/Carbon_Countdown.pdf (Accessed: 23 September 2009) Goodin, Robert E. (1994), "Selling Environmental Indulgences", Kyklos, Vol.47, No.4, pp.573-596. Graham, James (2004), Selling Carbon on the High Street?, http://www.greenlibdems.org.uk/articles/000033/selling_carbon_on_the_high_ street.html. (Accessed: 7 July 2009 2009). Grubb, M. (1989), The Greenhouse Effect: Negotiating Targets. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs. Hahn, Robert W. (1995), "Economic Prescriptions for Environmental Problems: Lessons for the United States and Continental Europe", in Eckersley, R. (ed.) Markets, the State and the Environment: Towards Integration. Melbourne: Macmillan, pp.129-156. Hardin, Garrett James (1968), "The Tragedy of the Commons", Science, Vol.162, No.December, pp.1243-1248. Hasselknippe, Henrik (2003), "Systems for Carbon Trading: An Overview", Climate Policy, Vol.3, No.Supplement 2, pp.S43-S57. Hepburn, Cameron and Nicholas Stern (2008), "A New Global Deal on Climate Change", Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Vol.24, No.2, pp.259-279. Hille, John (1997), The Concept of Environmental Space. Implications for Policies, Environmental Reporting and Assessments. Copenhagen: European Environment Agency. ICLEI (2007), Cities for Climate Protection, http://www.iclei.org/index.php?id=800. (Accessed: 12 December 2007). Kelman, Steven (1981), What Price Incentives? Economists and the Environment. Boston: Auburn House Publishing Company. Klaassen, Ger, Andries Nentjes and Mark Smith (2005), "Testing the Theory of Emissions Trading: Experimental Evidence on Alternative Mechanisms for Global Carbon Trading", Ecological Economics, Vol.53, No.1, pp.47-58. Korppoo, Anna (2003), "Forging Alliance with Russia: The Example of a Green Investment Scheme", Climate Policy, Vol.3, No.1, pp.67-76. Kousky, Carolyn and Stephen H. Schneider (2003), "Global Climate Policy: Will Cities Lead the Way?", Climate Policy, Vol.3, No.4, pp.359-372. Kuntsi-Reunanen, E. and J. Luukkanen (2006), "Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions in the Post-Kyoto Period: Emission Intensity Changes Required under the 'Contraction and Convergence' Approach", Natural Resources Forum, Vol.30, No.4, pp.272-279. Lafferty, William M. (2001), Sustainable Communities in Europe. London: Earthscan. Lindblom, Charles E. (1977), Politics and Markets. The World's Political-Economic Systems. New York: Basic Books. Lipow, Gar (2007), Emissions Trading: A Mixed Record, with Plenty of Failures. Regulations Work Better, http://gristmill.grist.org/story/2007/2/18/205116/813. (Accessed: 10 December 2007). Martinez-Alier, J. (1993), "Distributional Obstacles to International Environmental Policy: The Failures at Rio and Prospects after Rio", Environmental Values, Vol.2, No.1, pp.97-124. Martinez-Alier, Juan (2002), The Environmentalism of the Poor: A Study of Ecological Conflicts and Valuation. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing. Meadowcroft, James (2004), "Participation and Sustainable Development: Modes of Citizen, Community and Organisational Involvement", in Lafferty, W. M. (ed.) Governance for Sustainable Development: The Challenge of Adapting Form to Function. Cheltenham, U.K. and Northamptom, MA, USA: Edward Elgar, pp.162-190. Meyer, A. (2000), Contraction and Convergence. The Global Solution to Climate Change. Devon: Green Books Ltd. Miller, David (1999), "Justice and Global Inequality", in Hurrell, A. and N. Woods (eds.), Inequality, Globalization, and World Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp.187-210. Najam, Adil, Saleemul Huq and Youba Sokona (2003), "Climate Negotiations Beyond Kyoto: Developing Countries Concerns and Interests", Climate Policy, Vol.3, No.3, pp.221-231. OECD/IEA (2005), Act Locally, Trade Globally. Emissions Trading for Climate Policy. Paris: OECD. Page, Edward A. (2006), Climate Change, Justice and Future Generations. Cheltenham, U.K. and Northamptom, MA: Edward Elgar. Pearce, Fred (2003), "Saving the World, Plan B", New Scientist, Vol.180, No.2425, 13 December 2003, pp.6-7. Pearce, Fred (2008), "Dirty, Sexy Money", New Scientist, Vol.198, No.2652, 19 April, pp.38-41. Polanyi, Karl (1944, 1957 ed.), The Great Tranformation. The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Rawls, John (1999, Rev. ed. ed.), A Theory of Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Rose, Adam (1992), "Equity Considerations of Tradeable Carbon Emission Entitlements", in UNCTAD (ed.) Combating Global Warming. Study on a Global System of Tradeable Carbon Emission Entitlements. New York: United Nations, pp.55- 83. Sachs, Wolfgang, Reinhard Loske and Manfred Linz (1998), Greening the North: A Post- Industrial Blueprint for Ecology and Equity. London: Zed Books. Seyfang, Gill and Adrian Smith (2007), "Grassroots Innovations for Sustainable Development: Towards a New Research and Policy Agenda", Environmental Politics, Vol.16, No.4, pp.584-603. Sinai, Agnès (2001), "Lobbies Derail Climate Accord", Le Monde Diplomatique (English edition), No.February, Spiegel Online International (2007), "Merkel Takes the Climate Fight to Asia", 31 August, http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,503155,00.html Starkey, Richard (2008), Allocating Emissions Rights: Are Equal Shares, Fair Shares? Working Paper 118. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research. http://www.tyndall.ac.uk/publications/working_papers/twp118.pdf Starkey, Richard and Kevin Anderson (2005), Domestic Tradable Quotas: A Policy Instrument for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Use. Technical Report 39. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research. http://www.tyndall.ac.uk/research/theme2/final_reports/t3_22.pdf Stavins (2008), "Addressing Climate Change with a Comprehensive US Cap-and-Trade System", Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Vol.24, No.2, pp.298-321. The Foundation for the Economics of Sustainability (Feasta) (2008), Domestic Tradable Quotas as an Alternative to Carbon Taxation. Dublin: The Foundation for the Economics of Sustainability (Feasta). http://www.feasta.org/documents/energy/dtqsoct2003.pdf Tietenberg, Tom (1992a), "Implementation Issues: A General Theory", in UNCTAD (ed.) Combating Global Warming. Study on a Global System of Tradeable Carbon Emission Entitlements. New York: United Nations, pp.127-149. Tietenberg, Tom (1992b), "Relevant Experience with Tradeable Entitlements", in Combating Global Warming. Study on a Global System of Tradeable Carbon Emission Entitlements. New York: United Nations, UNCTAD, pp.37-54. Tietenberg, Tom (2003), "The Tradable-Permits Approach to Protecting the Commons: Lessons for Climate Change", Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Vol.19, No.3, pp.400-419. Wilbanks, Thomas J. (2003), "Integrating Climate Change and Sustainable Development in a Place-Based Context", Climate Policy, Vol.3, No.Supplement 1, pp.S147-S154.|
Actions (login required)