Functional studies of the group A rotavirus non-structural protein NSP4
Yang, Weiming (2010) Functional studies of the group A rotavirus non-structural protein NSP4. PhD thesis, University of Warwick.
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Official URL: http://webcat.warwick.ac.uk/record=b2491765~S15
NSP4, encoded by rotavirus genome segment 10 has been shown to be a
transmembrane, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) specific N-linked glycoprotein.
Consistent with its localization to the ER membrane, NSP4 was first shown to have a
role in the morphogenesis of the infectious virion. The protein has also been reported
to have cytotoxic activity when applied extracellularly to cells. Consequently it has
been earmarked as an enterotoxin being secreted from virus-infected cells to cause
early cellular pathology in the gut.
The effect of expressing the NSP4 protein of group A rotaviruses in cells has
been studied. It led to the rapid appearance of long cytoplasmic extrusions.
Site-directed mutagenesis was used to block N-linked glycosylation at both of the
known glycosylation sites near the amino terminus of NSP4. This revealed that the
NSP4 induced formation of the cytoplasmic extrusions was dependent on the
protein’s ability to become fully glycosylated. The cytoplasmic extrusions seen in
cells expressing glycosylated NSP4 were also evident in virus-infected cells.
Using real-time confocal microscopy a dynamic elongation of the cytoplasmic
extrusions with a growth speed of 2 μm/min was observed in virus-infected cells.
The cytoplasmic extrusions were found to contain β-tubulin and F-actin. Inhibiting
their polymerization prevented the formation of the extrusions from virus-infected
cells. Functional studies using Cell Tracker dyes showed that the cytoplasmic
extrusions could disseminate vesicles from virus-infected cells onto the plasma
membrane surface of uninfected cells. The vesicles were then found in the interior of
the uninfected cells. Mono-specific antibody to NSP4 revealed the presence of the
protein in the vesicles suggesting that the cytoplasmic extrusions facilitated the direct
cell-cell spread of NSP4.
The effect of NSP4 expression on the microtubular network of cells was
analysed. It was found that NSP4 de-polymerized the microtubular network from the
centre of cells and promoted the assembly of microtubules at the periphery of the
cells in a glycosylation independent manner. Similar de-polymerization and
re-assembly of the microtubules was observed in the virus-infected cells.
Interestingly in the presence of nocodazole, tubular structures containing tubulin and
viral proteins excluding NSP4 were found in virus-infected cells.
A YFP-PCA assay was established to screen for cellular partners of NSP4. The
functionality and the sensitivity of the assay were examined, but only two false
positive colonies were isolated in the first screening.
In conclusion, the function of glycosylated and unglycosylated NSP4 was
examined with the former possessing the ability to promote the formation of the
cytoplasmic extrusions from cells and both being capable of disrupting the
microtubular network indicating that two forms of NSP4 play different roles in NSP4
function. The cytoplasmic extrusions seen in our studies may be relevant to rotavirus
infection and pathogenesis.
|Item Type:||Thesis or Dissertation (PhD)|
|Subjects:||Q Science > QP Physiology|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Glycoproteins, Endoplasmic reticulum, Rotaviruses|
|Official Date:||September 2010|
|Institution:||University of Warwick|
|Theses Department:||Department of Biological Sciences|
|Extent:||xxii, 225 leaves : ill., charts|
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