Linear and nonlinear effects of aging on categorizing and naming faces.
Maylor, Elizabeth A. and Valentine, Tim, 1959-. (1992) Linear and nonlinear effects of aging on categorizing and naming faces. Psychology and Aging, Vol.7 (No.2). pp. 317-23. ISSN 0882-7974Full text not available from this repository.
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7922.214.171.1247
Subjects aged 54-84 performed 5 separate tasks involving various aspects of face processing: structural decisions (1), familiarity decisions (2), semantic decisions (3), first-name decisions (4), and name retrieval (5). For the categorization tasks (1-4), the mean reaction times for the older subjects (over 65) were plotted against the corresponding means for the younger subjects (under 65). This produced a linear function (slope greater than 1, intercept less than 0), providing only partial support for a simple, multiplicative model of cognitive slowing with age. Reaction time distributions were also plotted for each of the 5 tasks (older vs. younger subjects). The resulting functions were almost perfectly linear, with the exception of name retrieval, which was exponential with respect to age. This was attributed to the increased probability of a tip-of-the-tongue state with age caused by insufficient activation at the level of the name information (the final state of face identification).
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Subjects:||B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology|
|Divisions:||Faculty of Science > Psychology|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Face perception, Categorization (Psychology) -- Testing, Ability, Influence of age on, Memory -- Age factors, Cognition -- Testing, Reaction time|
|Journal or Publication Title:||Psychology and Aging|
|Publisher:||American Psychological Association|
|Page Range:||pp. 317-23|
|References:||Brinley, J. F. (1965). Cognitive sets, speed and accuracy of performance in the elderly. In A. T. Welford & J. E. Birren (Eds.), Behavior, aging and the nervous system (pp. 114-149). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas. Bruce, V, & Young, A. W (1986). Understanding face recognition. British Journal of Psychology, 77, 305-327. Burke, D. M., MacKay, D. G, Worthley, J. S., & Wade, E. (1991). On the tip of the tongue: What causes word finding failures in young and older adults? Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 237-246. Cattell, R. B., &Cattell, A. K. S. (1960). Handbook for the individual or group Culture Fair Intelligence Test. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing, Inc. Cerella, J. (1985). Information processing rates in the elderly. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 67-83. Cerella, J. (1990). Aging and information-processing rate. In J. E. Birren & K. W Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (3rd ed., pp. 201-221). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Cerella, J., Poon, L. W, & Williams, D. (1980). Age and the complexity hypothesis. In L. W Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980s (pp. 332-340). Washington DC: American Psychological Association. Cohen, G., & Faulkner, D. (1986). Memory for proper names: Age differences in retrieval. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 4, 187-197. Flude, B. M., Ellis, A. W, & Kay, J. (1989). Face processing and name retrieval in an anomic aphasic: Names are stored separately from semantic information about people. Brain & Cognition, 11, 60-72. Goodglass, H., Theurkauf, J. C, & Wingfield, A. (1984). Naming latencies as evidence for two modes of lexical retrieval. Applied Psycholinguistics, 5,135-146. Hale, S., Myerson, J., & Wagstaff, D. (1987). General slowing of nonverbal information processing: Evidence for a power law. Journal of Gerontology, 42,131-136. Horn, J. L., & Cattell, R. B. (1967). Age differences in fluid and crystallized intelligence. Acta Psychologica, 26,107-129. Johnston, R. A., & Bruce, V (1990). Lost properties? Retrieval differences between name codes and semantic codes for familiar people. Psychological Research, 52, 62-67. MacKay, D. G, & Burke, D. M. (1990). Cognition and aging: A theory of new learning and the use of old connections. In T. M. Hess (Ed.), Aging and cognition: Knowledge organization and utilization (pp. 213-263). Amsterdam: Elsevier/North-Holland. Martin, M. (1986). Ageing and patterns of change in everyday memory and cognition. Human Learning, 5, 63-74. Maylor, E. A. (1990). Recognizing and naming faces: Aging, memory retrieval, and the tip of the tongue state. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 45, P215-P226. Myerson, J., Hale, S., Wagstaff, D., Poon, L. W, & Smith, G. A. (1990). The information loss model: A mathematical theory of age-related cognitive slowing. Psychological Review, 97, 475-487. Salthouse, T. A. (1985). A theory of cognitive aging. Amsterdam: Elsevier/ North-Holland. Smith, G. A., Poon, L. W, Hale, S., & Myerson, J. (1988). A regular relationship between old and young adults' latencies on their best, average and worst trials. Australian Journal of Psychology, 40,195- 210. Wechsler, D. (1981). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale— Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation. Young, A. W, & Bruce, V (1991). Perceptual categories and the computation of "grandmother". European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 3, 5-49. Young, A. W, Ellis, A. W, & Flude, B. M. (1988). Accessing stored information about familiar people. Psychological Research, 50,111 - 115|
Actions (login required)