Alcohol, reaction time and memory: a meta-analysis
Maylor, Elizabeth A. and Rabbitt, Patrick. (1993) Alcohol, reaction time and memory: a meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychology, Vol.84 (No.3). pp. 301-317. ISSN 0007-1269Full text not available from this repository.
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8295.1993.tb02485...
Moderate doses of alcohol impair performance on a variety of information processing tasks. Two separate meta-analyses were conducted on the results of (1) reaction time studies, and (2) recognition memory studies, representing 25 and 16 different task conditions, respectively. In both cases, performance with alcohol (either 0.8 or 1.0 ml/kg body weight) was plotted as a function of performance with no alcohol. For reaction time, a linear fit accounted for 99.7 per cent of the variance. The same function applied not only to the mean but to the distribution of reaction times from the 5th to the 95th percentiles. For recognition memory, a linear fit accounted for 96.2 per cent of the variance in accuracy (expressed as the logarithm of proportion correct). Thus alcohol appears to have a general linear effect on information processing, rather than specific effects on a subset of stages. It is concluded that the results are consistent with a reduced processing resources hypothesis for the impairment with alcohol.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Subjects:||B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology|
|Divisions:||Faculty of Science > Psychology|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Alcohol -- Physiological effect, Reaction time -- Effect of drugs on, Drinking of alcoholic beverages, Memory -- Effect of drugs on , Human information processing -- Effect of drugs on , Cognition -- Testing|
|Journal or Publication Title:||British Journal of Psychology|
|Publisher:||John Wiley & Sons Ltd.|
|Page Range:||pp. 301-317|
|Funder:||Economic and Social Research Council (Great Britain) (ESRC), Medical Research Council (Great Britain) (MRC)|
|Grant number:||PG8612638 (MRC), (ESRC)|
|References:||Birnbaum, I. M. & Parker, E. S. (1977). Acute effects of alcohol on storage and retrieval. In I. M. Birnbaum & E. S. Parker (Eds), Alcohol and Human Memory. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Brinley, J. F. (1965). Cognitive sets, speed and accuracy of performance in the elderly. In A. T. Welford & J. E. Birren (Eds), Behavior, Aging and the Nervous System, pp. 114-149. Springfield, IL: Thomas. Carpenter, J. A. (1959). The e*ect of caffeine and alcohol on simple visual reaction time. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 52, 491-496. Carpenter, J. A. (1962). Effects of alcohol on some psychological processes. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 23, 274-314. Cerella, J. (1985). Information processing rates in the elderly. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 67-83. Cerella, J. (1990). Aging and information-processing rate. In J. E. Birren & K. W. Schaie (Eds), Handbook of the Psychology of Aging, 3rd ea., pp. 201-221. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Cotton, J. W. (1989). Interpreting data from two-period crossover design (also termed the replicated 2 x 2 Latin square design). Psychological Bulletin, 106, 503-515. Craik, F. I. M. (1977). Similarities between the effects of aging and alcoholic intoxication on memory performance, construed within a 'levels of processing' framework. In I. M. Birnbaum & E. S. Parker (Eds), Alcohol and Human Memory. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Hasher, L. & Zacks, R. T. (1979). Automatic and effortful processes in memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 108, 356-388. Haut, J. S., Beckwith, B. E., Petros, T. V. & Russell, S. (1989). Gender differences in retrieval from long-term memory following acute intoxication with ethanol. Physiology and Behavior, 45, 1161-1165. Hunt, E. (1978). Mechanics of verbal ability. Psychological Review, 85, 109-130. Huntley, M. S. Jr (1972). Influences of alcohol and S-R uncertainty upon spatial localization time. Psychopharmacologia (Berlin), 27, 131-140. Huntley, M. S. Jr (1974). Effects of alcohol, uncertainty and novelty upon response selection. Psychopharmacologia (Berlin), 39, 259-266. Jellinek, E. M. & McFarland, R. A. (1940). Analysis of psychological experiments on the effects of alcohol. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1, 272-371. Kail, R. (1991). Developmental change in speed of processing during childhood and adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 490-501. Maylor, E. A. & Rabbitt, P. M. A. (1987a). Effect of alcohol on rate of forgetting. Psychopharmacology, 91, 230-235. Maylor, E. A. & Rabbitt, P. M. A. (1987b). Effects of alcohol and practice on choice reaction time. Perception and Psychophysics, 42, 465-475. Maylor, E. A. & Rabbitt, P. M. A. (1988). Amount of practice and degree of attentional control have no influence on the adverse effect of alcohol in word categorization and visual search tasks. Perception and Psychophysics, 44, 117-126. Maylor, E. A. & Rabbitt, P. M. A. (1989). Relationship between rate of preparation for, and processing of, an event-requiring a choice response. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 41A, 47-62. Maylor, E. A., Rabbitt, P. M. A. & Connolly, S. A. V. (1989). Rate of processing and judgment of response speed: Comparing the effects of alcohol and practice. Perception and Psychophysics, 45, 431-438. Maylor, E. A., Rabbitt, P. M. A., James, G. H. & Kerr, S. A. (199Oa). Comparing the effects of alcohol and intelligence on text recall and recognition. British Journal of Psychology, 81, 299-313. Maylor, E. A., Rabbitt, P. M. A., James, G. H. & Kerr, S. A. (199Ob). Effects of alcohol and extended practice on divided-attention performance. Perception and Psychophysics, 48, 445-452. Maylor, E. A., Rabbitt, P. M. A., James, G. H. & Kerr, S. A. (1992). Effects of alcohol, practice and task complexity on reaction time distributions. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 44A, 119-139. Maylor, E. A., Rabbitt, P. M. A. & Kingstone, A. F. (1987). Effects of alcohol on word categorization and recognition memory. British Journal of Psychology, 78, 233-239. Maylor, E. A., Rabbitt, P. M. A. & Kingstone, A. F. (1988). Effects of alcohol on lexical access. Psychopharmacology, 95, 119-123. Maylor, E. A., Rabbitt, P. M. A., Sahgal, A. & Wright, C. (1987). Effects of alcohol on speed and accuracy in choice reaction time and visual search. Acta Psychologica, 65, 147-163. Myerson, J., Hale, S., Wagstaff, D., Poon, L. W. & Smith, G. A. (1990). The information-loss model: A mathematical theory of age-related cognitive slowing. Psychological Review, 97, 475-487. Oborne, D. J. & Rogers, Y. (1983). Interactions of alcohol and caffeine on human reaction time. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 54, 528-534. Rabbitt, P. M. A. & Maylor, E. A. (1991). Investigating models of human performance. British Journal of Psychology, 82, 259-290. Robinson, G. H. & Peebles, W. J. (1974). Interactions between alcohol, task difficulty, and compatibility in a choice-reaction task. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 38, 459-466. Salthouse, T. A. (1985). A Theory of Cognitive Aging. Amsterdam: North-Holland. Salthouse, T. A. (1991). Theoretical Perspectives on Cognitive Aging. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Salthouse, T. A. & Somberg, B. L. (1982). Isolating the age difference in speeded performance. Journal of Gerontology, 37, 59-63. Schneider, W., Dumais, S. T. & Shiffrin, R. M. (1984). Automatic and control processing and attention. In R. Parasuraman & D. R. Davies (Eds), Varieties of Attention, pp. 1-27. New York: Academic Press. Sedman, A. J., Wilkinson, P. K., Sakmar, E., Weidler, D. J. & Wagner, J. G. (1976). Food effects on absorption and metabolism of alcohol. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 37, 1197-1214. Smith, E. (1968). Choice RT: An analysis of the major theoretical positions. Psychological Bulletin, 69, 77-110. Smith, G. A., Poon, L. W., Hale, S. & Myerson, J. (1988). A regular relationship between old and young adults' latencies on their best, average and worst trials. Australian Journal of Psychology, 40, 195-210. Sternberg, S. (1966). High speed scanning in human memory. Science, 153, 652-654. Tharp, V. K. Jr, Rundell, O. H. Jr, Lester, B. K. & Williams, H. L. (1974). Alcohol and information processing. Psychopharmacologia (Berlin), 40, 33-52. Wallgren, H. & Barry, H. III (1970). Actions of Alcohol. New York: Elsevier. Welford, A. T. (1958). Ageing and Human Skill. London: Oxford University Press.|
Actions (login required)