Applying Brinley plots to individuals: effects of aging on performance distributions in two speeded tasks.
Maylor, Elizabeth A. and Rabbitt, Patrick. (1994) Applying Brinley plots to individuals: effects of aging on performance distributions in two speeded tasks. Psychology and Aging, Vol.9 (No.2). pp. 224-30. ISSN 0882-7974Full text not available from this repository.
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7922.214.171.124
This article describes the application of Brinley plots to performance distributions from 2 speeded tasks, namely, letter coding and visual search. Ss were aged either 60 years (n = 111) or 75 years (n = 111). Response times within each age group were ranked and then plotted against each other so that the best 60-year-old was paired with the best 75-year-old, and so on. For both tasks, linear fits to the functions were almost perfect, with slopes greater than 1 and with negative intercepts. Additive and multiplicative models of aging were rejected in favor of a general linear model, with different parameters for the letter coding and visual search tasks.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Subjects:||B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology|
|Divisions:||Faculty of Science > Psychology|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Ability, Influence of age on, Age and intelligence, Cognition -- Testing, Human information processing -- Age factors|
|Journal or Publication Title:||Psychology and Aging|
|Publisher:||American Psychological Association|
|Page Range:||pp. 224-30|
|Funder:||Economic and Social Research Council (Great Britain) (ESRC), Medical Research Council (Great Britain) (MRC)|
|Grant number:||PG8612638 (MRC), (ESRC)|
|References:||Allen, P. A., Ashcraft, M. H., & Weber, T. A. (1992). On mental multiplication and age. Psychology and Aging, 7, 536-545. Allen, P. A., Madden, D. J., Weber, T. A., & Groth, K. E. (1993). Influence of age and processing stage on visual word recognition. Psychology and Aging, 8, 274-282. Brinley, J. F. (1965). Cognitive sets, speed and accuracy of performance in the elderly. In A. T. Welford & J. E. Birren (Eds.), Behavior, aging and the nervous system (pp. 114-149). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas. Cattell, R. B., & Cattell, A. K. S. (1960). Handbook for the Individual or Group Culture Fair Intelligence Test. Champaign, IL: Institute for Personality and Ability Testing. Cerella, J. (1985). Information processing rates in the elderly. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 67-83. Cerella, J. (1990). Aging and information-processing rate. In J. E. Birren & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (3rd ed., pp. 201-221). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Cerella, J. (1991). Age effects may be global, not local: Comment on Fisk and Rogers (1991). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 120,215-223. Ferguson, G. A. (1976). Statistical analysis in psychology and education (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Fisk, A. D., & Rogers, W. A. (1991). Toward an understanding of agerelated memory and visual search effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 120, 131-149. Geary, D. C., & Wiley, J. G. (1991). Cognitive addition: Strategy choice and speed-of-processing differences in young and elderly adults. Psychology and Aging, 6, 474-483. Hale, S., Lima, S. D., & Myerson, J. (1991). General cognitive slowing in the nonlexical domain: An experimental validation. Psychology and Aging, 6, 512-521. Hale, S., Myerson, J., Smith, G. A., & Poon, L. W. (1988). Age, variability, and speed: Between-subjects diversity. Psychology and Aging, 3, 407-410. Hertzog, C., & Schaie, K. W. (1986). Stability and change in adult intelligence: 1. Analysis of longitudinal covariance structures. Psychology and Aging, 1, 159-171. Hertzog, C., & Schaie, K. W. (1988). Stability and change in adult intelligence: 2. Simultaneous analysis of longitudinal means and covariance structures. Psychology and Aging, 3, 122-130. Laver, G. D., & Burke, D. M. (1993). Why do semantic priming effects increase in old age? A meta-analysis. Psychology and Aging, 8, 34-43. Madden, D. J., Pierce, T. W, & Allen, P. A. (1992). Adult age differences in attentional allocation during memory search. Psychology and Aging, 7,594-601. Maylor, E. A., & Valentine, T. (1992). Linear and nonlinear effects of 230 ELIZABETH A. MAYLOR AND PATRICK M. A. RABBITT aging on categorizing and naming faces. Psychology and Aging, 7 317-323. Morse, C. K. (1993). Does variability increase with age? An archival study of cognitive measures. Psychology and Aging, 8, 156-164. Myerson, J., Hale, S., Hirschman, R., Hansen, C., & Christiansen, B. (1989). Global increase in response latencies by early middle age: Complexity effects in individual performances. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 52, 353-362. Myerson, J., Hale, S., Wagstaff, D., Poon, L. W., & Smith, G. A. (1990). The information-loss model: A mathematical theory of age-related cognitive slowing. Psychological Review, 97, 475-487. Salthouse, T. A. (1985). A theory of cognitive aging. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Salthouse, T. A. (1991). Theoretical perspectives on cognitive aging. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Salthouse, T. A., & Kersten, A. W. (1993). Decomposing adult age differences in symbol arithmetic. Memory & Cognition, 21, 699-710. Salthouse, T. A., & Somberg, B. L. (1982). Isolating the age difference in speeded performance. Journal of Gerontology, 37, 59-63. Savage, R. D. (1984). Alphabet Coding Task-15. Murdoch University, Perth, Western Australia. Smith, G. A., Poon, L. W., Hale, S., & Myerson, J. (1988). A regular relationship between old and young adults' latencies on their best, average and worst trials. Australian Journal of Psychology, 40, 195- 210. Wechsler, D. (1981). Manual for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale- Revised. New York: Psychological Corporation.|
Actions (login required)