Older pedestrians : a critical review of the literature
Dunbar, George (George L.), Holland, Carol A. and Maylor, Elizabeth A. (2004) Older pedestrians : a critical review of the literature. London: The Department for Transport. (Road safety research report).
WRAP_Maylor_olderpedestriansacriticalrev.pdf - Published Version - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
This report reviews literature relevant to the impact of the ageing process on pedestrian safety. The review has three main objectives: • To provide a critical review of research on older pedestrians and road safety. It is intended that this will provide a reference source in formulating future policy and research decisions; • To identify those groups within the population of older pedestrians who are most at risk; • To identify and review initiatives, schemes and strategies that have been developed either at the local or national level, with a view to identifying, where possible, those that are examples of best practice. Because relatively few studies have directly investigated older pedestrians, we have used data from related areas, such as research on older drivers, to support the analysis.
|Subjects:||H Social Sciences > HE Transportation and Communications
H Social Sciences > HV Social pathology. Social and public welfare
|Divisions:||Faculty of Science > Psychology|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Pedestrians -- Safety measures, Older people|
|Series Name:||Road safety research report|
|Publisher:||The Department for Transport|
|Place of Publication:||London|
|Number of Pages:||210|
|Status:||Not Peer Reviewed|
|Access rights to Published version:||Open Access|
|References:||Adams, P. F., & Collins, G. (1987). Measures of health among older persons living in the community. In R. J. Havlik & B. M. Lui & R. Kovar & R. Suzman & J. J. Feldman & T. Harris & J. J. Nostrand (Eds.), Health Statistics on Older Persons, United States, 1986. Washington D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office. Al-Kaisy, H. N. A. (1996). Investigation of signing to reduce conflicts between pedestrians and turning vehicles at signalized intersections. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 30(1), 64-69. Allen, M., Abrams, B., Ginsburg, A., & Weintraub, L. (1996). Forensic aspects of vision and highway safety. Tucson, AZ: Lawyers & Judges Publishing Company. Al-Qattan, M. M. (2000). Burns in epileptics in Saudi Arabia. Burns, 26, 561-563. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. (2001). A Policy of Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. Washington, DC. Anderson, K., & Nilsson, G. (1981). The effects on accidents of compulsory use of running lights driving in daylight in Sweden. (VTI Report 208A). Linkoping, Sweden. Andersson, R., & Menckel, E. (1995). On the prevention of accidents and injuries: A comparative analysis of conceptual frameworks. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 27(6), 757-768. Aniansson, A., Hedberg, M., Henning, G. & Grimby, G. (1986). Muscle morphology, enzymatic activity and muscle strength in elderly men: a follow up study. Muscle and Nerve, 9, 585-591. Anstey, K. J., Luszcz, M. A., & Sanchez, L. (2001). Two-year decline in vision but not hearing is associated with memory decline in very old adults in a populationbased sample. Gerontology, 47, 289-293. Antaki, C., Morris, P. E., & Flude, B. M. (1986). The effectiveness of the ‘‘Tufty Club’’ in road safety education. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 56(3), 363-365. Arking, R. (1998). Biology of Aging (2nd ed.). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates. Armstrong, A. L., Oborne, J., Coupland, C. A., Macpherson, M. B., Bassey, E. J., & Wallace, W. A. (1996). Effects of hormone replacement therapy on muscle performance and balance in post-menopausal women. Clinical Science, 91, 685-690. Arundale, K. (1978). An investigation into the variation of human contrast sensitivity with age and ocular pathology. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 62, 213-215. Ashburn, A., Stack, E., Pickering, R., & Ward, C. D. (2001). Predicting fallers in a community-based sample of people with Parkinson’s disease. Gerontology, 47, 277-281. Atchley, P., & Andersen, G. J. (1998). The effect of age, retinal eccentricity, and speed on the detection of optic flow components. Psychology and Aging, 13(2), 297-308. Atchley, P., & Kramer, A. F. (1998). Spatial cuing in a stereoscopic display: Attention remains ‘‘depth aware’’ with age. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 53B(5), P318-P323. Atkins, A. (2001). Older People: Their Transport Needs and Requirements. London: DTLR. ATSB. (2000). Monograph 3: Pedestrian Safety - Australia’s international pedestrian safety performance 1990-1997. Averill, P. M., & Beck, J. G. (2000). Post-traumatic stress disorder in older adults: A conceptual review. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 14(2), 133-156. Bailey, S. S., Jones, S. A., Stout, R. J., Bailey, J. H., Kass, S., & Morgan, B. J. (1992). Issues of elderly pedestrians. Transportation Research Record, 1375, 68-73. Ball, K., Beard, B. L., Roenker, D. L., Miller, R. L., & Griggs, D. S. (1988). Age and visual search: expanding the useful field of view. Journal of the Optical Society of America (A), 5, 2210-2219. Ball, K., & Owsley, C. (1993). The useful field of view test: A new technique for evaluating age-related declines in visual function. Journal of the American Optometric Association, 64, 71-79. Ball, K., Owsley, C., Sloane, M. E., Roenker, D. L., & Bruni, J. R. (1993). Visual attention problems as a predictor of vehicle crashes in older drivers. Investigative Opthalmology and Visual Science, 34(11), 3110-3123. Ball, K., Owsley, C., Stalvey, B., Roenker, D. L., Sloane, M. E., & Graves, M. (1998). Driving avoidance and functional impairment in older drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 30(3), 313-322. Ball, K., Roenker, D. L., & Bruni, J. R. (1990). Developmental changes in attention and visual search throughout adulthood. In J.Enns (Ed.), Advances in Psychology (Vol. 69, pp. 489-508). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers. Baltes, P. B. (1997). On the incomplete architecture of human ontogeny. Selection, optimization, and compensation as foundation of development theory. American Psychologist, 52, 366-380. Baltes, P. B., & Baltes, M. M. (1990). Psychological perspectives on successful aging: The model of selective optimization with compensation. In P. B. Baltes & M. M. Baltes (Eds.), Successful Aging: Perspectives from the Behavioral Sciences. Cambridge: CUP. Older Pedestrians: A Critical Review of the Literature Baltes, P. B., & Lindenberger, U. (1997). Emergence of a powerful connection between sensory and cognitive functions across the adult life span: A new window to the study of cognitive aging? Psychology and Aging, 12(1), 12-21. Beekman, A. T. F., Copeland, J. R. M., & Prince, M. J. (1999). Review of community prevalence of depression in later life. British Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 307-311. Belanger-Bonneau, H., Lamothe, F., Rannou, A., Joly, M. F., Bergeron, J., Breton, J. G., Laberge Nadeau, C., & Maug, U. (1994). Project d’experimentation et d’e´valuation d’une signalisation numerique pietionnie`re: Le de´compte visuel. Montreal, Canada: Unite´ de Sante´ Publique, Hopital du Sacre´-Coeur de Montre´al, Centre de Recherche sur les Transport. Berardi, A., Parasuraman, R., & Haxby, J. V. (2001). Overall vigilance and sustained attention decrements in healthy aging. Experimental Aging Research, 27, 19-39. Berger, J. W., Fine, S. L., & Maguire, M. G. (1999). Age-related Macular Degeneration. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby. Birren, J. E., & Shock, N. W. (1950). Age changes in rate and level of visual dark adaptation. Journal of Applied Physiology, 2, 407-411. Bjerre, B., & Schelp, L. (2000). The community safety approach in Falun, Sweden - is it possible to characterise the most effective prevention endeavours and how longlasting are the results? Accident Analysis and Prevention, 32, 461-470. Bjo¨rnstig, U., Bjo¨rnstig, J., & Dahlgren, A. (1997). Slipping on ice and snow - Elderly women and young men are typical victims. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 29(2), 211-215. Blin, O., Ferrandez, A. M., & Serratrice, G. (1990). Quantitative analysis of gait in Parkinson patients: Increased variability of stride length. Journal of Neurological Science, 98, 91-97. Bly, P. H., Hunt, P. B., Maycock, G., Mitchell, C. G. B., Porter, J., & Allsop, R. E. (1995). Future scenarios for inland surface transport (TRL Report 130). Crowthorne, Berks.: TRL. Bo¨hm, H. (1966). Alte Menschen als Fussga¨nger im Strassenverkehr. Bonn. Boot, T. J. M. (1987). Traffic Accidents at Signalized and Non-Signalized Pedestrian Crossings. Driebergen, Netherlands: SVT. Boucher, P., Teasdale, N., Courtmanche, R., Bard, C., & Fleury, M. (1995). Postural stability in diabetic polyneuropathy. Diabetes Care, 18, 638-645. Bowman, B. L., & Vecellio, R. L. (1995). Pedestrian walking speeds and conflicts at urban median locations. Transportation Research Record, 1438, 67-73. Boyce, T. E., & Geller, E. S. (2000). A community-wide intervention to improve pedestrian safety: Guidelines for institutionalizing large-scale behavior change. Environment and Behavior, 32(4), 502-520. Bradbury, A. (1991). Pattern and severity of injury sustained by pedestrians in road traffic accidents with particular reference to the effect of alcohol. Injury, 22(2), 132-134. Brauer, S. G., Burns, Y. R., & Galley, P. (2000). A prospective study of laboratory and clinical measures of postural stability to predict community-dwelling fallers. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 55A(8), M469-M476. Brauer, S. G., Woollacott, M., & Shumway-Cook, A. (2001). The interacting effects of cognitive demand and recovery of postural stability in balance-impaired elderly persons. Journal of Gerontology Series A: Medical Sciences, 56A(8), M489-M496. Brinley, J. F. (1965). Cognitive sets, speed and accuracy of performance in the elderly. In J. E. Birren (Ed.), Behavior, Aging, and the Nervous System (pp. 191-216). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. Broughton, J. (1997). Road accident statistics. In M. Mitchell (Ed.), The Aftermath of Road Accidents (pp. 15-30). London: Routledge. Brouwer, W., Rothengatter, T., & van Wolffelaar, P. (1988). Compensatory potential in elderly drivers. In T. Rothengatter & R. de Bruin (Eds.), Road User Behaviour: Theory and Research. Maastricht: Van Gorcum. Brown, C. (1991). Fatal road accidents and loss of life expectancy, Road Accidents Great Britain: The Casualty Report (pp. 60-64). London: HMSO. Brown, I. D. (1980). Are pedestrians and drivers really compatible? In D. J. Oborne & J. A. Levis (Eds.), Human Factors in Transport Research, Vol II User Factors (pp. 371-379). London: Academic Press. Brown, L. A., Shumway-Cook, A., & Woollacott, M. H. (1999). Attentional demands and postural recovery: the effects of aging. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Medical Sciences, 54A(4), M165-M171. Browning, G. G. (1998). Clinical Otology and Audiology (2nd ed.). Oxford: Butterworth. Bru¨ckner, R. (1959). U¨ ber Methoden longitudinaler Alternsforschung am Auge. Ophthalmologica, Basel, 138, 59-75. Burg, A. (1967). Light sensitivity as related to age and sex. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 24, 1279-1288. Burg, A. (1968). Lateral visual field as related to age and sex. Journal of Applied Psychology, 52(1), 10-15. Burns, P. C. (1999). Navigation and the mobility of older drivers. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 54B(1), S49-S55. Older Pedestrians: A Critical Review of the Literature Cairney, P. (1999). Pedestrian Safety in Australia (FHWA RD-99-093). McLean, Virginia: Federal Highway Administration. Campbell, M. K., Bush, T. L., & Hale, W. E. (1993). Medical conditions associated with driving cessation in community-dwelling ambulatory elders. Journal of Gerontology, 45, S230-S234. Cao, C., Schultz, A. B., Ashton-Miller, J. A., & Alexander, N. B. (1998). Sudden turns and stops while walking: kinematic sources of age and gender differences. Gait and Posture, 7, 45-53. Carp, F. M. (1971). Pedestrian transportation for retired people. Highway Research Record, 356, 105-118. Carp, F. M. (1972). The older pedestrian in San Francisco. Highway Research Record, 403, 18-25. Carsten, O. M. J., Sherborne, D. J., & Rothengatter, J. A. (1998). Intelligent traffic signals for pedestrians: evaluation of trials in three countries. Transportation Research, Part C, 6, 213-229. Carsten, O. M. J., Tight, M. R., Southwell, M. T., & Plows, B. (1989). Urban Accidents: Why do they happen? Basingstoke, Hampshire: AA Foundation for Road Safety Research. Carthy, T., Packham, D., Salter, D., & Silcock, D. (1995). Risk and Safety on the Roads: The Older Pedestrian. Basingstoke, Hampshire: AA Foundation for Road Safety Research. Cerella, J. (1985). Information processing rates in the elderly. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 67-83. Cerella, J. (1990). Aging and information processing rate. In J. E. Birren & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the Psychology of Aging (3rd ed., pp. 201-221). San Diego, CA.: Academic Press. Chapman, A. J., Sheehy, N. P., Foot, H. C., & Wade, F. M. (1981). Child pedestrian behaviour. In H. C. Foot & A. J. Chapman & F. M. Wade (Eds.), Road Safety: Research and Practice (pp. 135-142). Eastbourne: Praeger. Chapman, A. J., Wade, F. M., & Foot, H. C. (1982). Pedestrian Accidents. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. Charness, N., & Bosman, E. A. (1992). Human factors and age. In F. I. M. Craik & T. A. Salthouse (Eds.), The Handbook of Aging and Cognition (pp. 495-551). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Chen, H.-C. (1993). Factors underlying balance restoration after tripping: Biomechanical model analyses. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Michigan. Chen, H.-C., Ashton-Miller, J. A., Alexander, N. B., & Schultz, A. B. (1991). Stepping over obstacles: gait patterns of healthy young and old adults. Journal of Gerontology, 46, M196-M203. Chen, H.-C., Schultz, A. B., Ashton-Miller, J. A., Giordani, B., Alexander, N. B., & Guire, K. E. (1996). Stepping over obstacles: dividing attention impairs performance of old more than young adults. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 51A, M116-M122. Chong, R. K. Y., Horak, F. B., Frank, J., & Kaye, J. (1999). Sensory organization for balance: Specific deficits in Alzheimer’s but not in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 54A(3), M122-M128. Clayton, A. B., & Colgan, M. A. (2001). Alcohol and Pedestrians (20). London: DTLR. Coffin, A., & Morrall, J. (1995). Walking speeds of elderly pedestrians at crosswalks. Transportation Research Record, 1487, 63-67. Cohen, J., & Preston, B. (1968). Causes and Prevention of Road Accidents. London: Faber and Faber. Colborne, H. V., & Sheppard, D. (1966). Testing a poster for infants. Safety Education, 107, 8-10. Colenda, C. C., Schneider, L. S., Katz, I. R., Alexopoulos, G. S., & Reynolds, C. (2000). Late-life depression. In J. L. Levenson (Ed.), Depression. Philadelphia, PA: American College of Physicians. Compton, D. H. (1982). Pedestrian Exposure to Risk in Housing Areas (SR 749). Crowthorne, Berkshire: Transport and Road Research Laboratory. Connelly, M. J., Conaglen, H. M., Parsonson, B. S., & Isler, R. B. (1998). Child pedestrians’ crossing gap thresholds. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 30(4), 443-453. Cooper, P. J., Tallman, K., Tuokko, H., & Beattie, B. L. (1993). Vehicle crash involvement and cognitive deficit in older drivers. Journal of Safety Research, 24(9-17). Copeland, J. R. M., Beekman, A. T. F., Dewey, M. E., Hooijer, C., Jordan, A., Lawlor, B. A., Lobo, A., Magnusson, H., Mann, A. H., Meller, I., Prince, M. J., Reischies, F., Turrina, C., deVries, M. W., & Wilson, K. C. M. (1999). Depression in Europe: Geographical distribution among older people. British Journal of Psychiatry, 174, 312-321. Council, F. M., & Zegeer, C. V. (1992). Accident Analysis of Older Drivers and Pedestrians at Intersections - Task B Working Paper. Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration. County Surveyors Society. (1994). Traffic Calming in Practice. London: Landor Publishing. Older Pedestrians: A Critical Review of the Literature Crancer, A. J., & O’Neill, P. A. (1970). A record analysis of Washington drivers with licence restrictions for heart disease. Northwest Medicine, 69, 409-416. Dahlstedt, S. (1978a). La°ngsamma fotga¨ngare - pensiona¨rers ga°nghastighet och promenadvanor (R2: 1978). Linko¨ping: Swedish Institute for Building Research. Dahlstedt, S. (1978b). Walking speeds and walking habits of elderly people. In N. Ashford & W. G. Bell (Eds.), International Conference on Transport for the Elderly and Handicapped (pp. 243-249). Cambridge: Loughborough University of Technology. Dahlstedt, S., & Rumar, K. (1973). Vehicle colour and front conspicuity in some simulated rural traffic situations. Uppsala: University of Uppsala, Dept. Psychology. Davies, D. G. (1999). Research, Development, and Implementation of Pedestrian Safety Facilities in the United Kingdom (RD 99-089). McLean, Virginia: Federal Highway Administration. Davies, H. E. H. (1992). The Puffin Pedestrian Crossing: Experience with the first experimental sites. (Research Report RR 364). Crowthorne, Berks.: TRL. Davis, S. E., Robertson, D., & King, L. E. (1989). Pedestrian/vehicle conflicts: An accident prediction model. Transportation Research Record, 1210, 1-11. de Lange, M. (1996). The Position of the Pedestrian on Crossing Locations. The Hague, Netherlands: Dutch Pedestrians Association. Deery, H. A., Day, L. M., & Fildes, B. (2000). An impact evaluation of a falls prevention program among older people. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 32, 427-433.|
Actions (login required)