Is there a glass ceiling over Europe? : exploring the gender pay gap across the wage distribution
Arulampalam, Wiji (2004) Is there a glass ceiling over Europe? : exploring the gender pay gap across the wage distribution. Discussion Paper. Bonn: Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit. Discussion paper (Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit) (No.1373).
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Using harmonised data from the European Union Household Panel, we analyse gender pay gaps by sector across the wages distribution for ten countries. We find that the mean gender
pay gap in the raw data typically hides large variations in the gap across the wages distribution. We use quantile regression (QR) techniques to control for the effects of
individual and job characteristics at different points of the distribution, and calculate the part of the gap attributable to differing returns between men and women. We find that, first, gender pay gaps are typically bigger at the top of the wage distribution, a finding that is consistent with the existence of glass ceilings. For some countries gender pay gaps are also bigger at the bottom of the wage distribution, a finding that is consistent with sticky floors. Third, the gender pay gap is typically higher at the top than the bottom end of the wage distribution, suggesting that glass ceilings are more prevalent than sticky floors and that these prevail in the majority of our countries. Fourth, the gender pay gap differs significantly across the public and the private sector wages distribution for each of our EU countries.
|Item Type:||Working or Discussion Paper (Discussion Paper)|
|Subjects:||H Social Sciences > HC Economic History and Conditions
H Social Sciences > HD Industries. Land use. Labor
|Divisions:||Faculty of Social Sciences > Economics|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Wages -- Women -- Europe, Glass ceiling (Employment discrimination) -- Europe, Labor discrimination -- Europe|
|Series Name:||Discussion paper (Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit)|
|Publisher:||Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit|
|Place of Publication:||Bonn|
|Official Date:||October 2004|
|Number of Pages:||35|
|Institution:||University of Warwick|
|Status:||Not Peer Reviewed|
|Access rights to Published version:||Open Access|
|Funder:||Leverhulme Trust (LT)|
|Version or Related Resource:||Arulampalam, W. (2007) Is there a glass ceiling over Europe? Exploring the gender pay gap across wage distribution. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 60(2), pp.163-186.|
Albrecht, J., Bjorklund, A., and Vroman, S. (2003). Is there a glass ceiling in Sweden? Journal of Labor Economics, 21(1), pp.145-177.
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