Behavioural symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preterm and term children born small and appropriate for gestational age : a longitudinal study
Heinonen, Kati, Raikkonen, Katri, Pesonen, Anu-Katriina, Andersson, Sture, Kajantie, Eero, Eriksson, Johan, Wolke, Dieter and Lano, Aulikki. (2010) Behavioural symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in preterm and term children born small and appropriate for gestational age : a longitudinal study. BMC Pediatrics, Vol.10 (No.91). ISSN 1471-2431
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-10-91
It remains unclear whether it is more detrimental to be born too early or too small in relation to symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thus, we tested whether preterm birth and small body size at birth adjusted for gestational age are independently associated with symptoms of ADHD in children.
A longitudinal regional birth cohort study comprising 1535 live-born infants between 03/15/1985 and 03/14/1986 admitted to the neonatal wards and 658 randomly recruited non-admitted infants, in Finland. The present study sample comprised 828 children followed up to 56 months. The association between birth status and parent-rated ADHD symptoms of the child was analyzed with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses.
Neither prematurity (birth<37 weeks of gestation) nor lower gestational age was associated with ADHD symptoms. However, small for gestational age (SGA<-2 standard deviations [SD] below the mean for weight at birth) status and lower birth weight SD score were significantly, and independently of gestational age, associated with higher ADHD symptoms. Those born SGA, relative to those born AGA, were also 3.60-times more likely to have ADHD symptoms scores above the clinical cut-off. The associations were not confounded by factors implicated as risks for pregnancy and/or ADHD.
Intrauterine growth restriction, reflected in SGA status and lower birth weight, rather than prematurity or lower gestational age per se, may increase risk for symptoms of ADHD in young children.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Subjects:||R Medicine > RJ Pediatrics|
|Divisions:||Faculty of Science > Psychology|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder -- Longitudinal studies, Premature infants -- Development -- Longitudinal studies, Birth weight, Low -- Longitudinal studies, Fetal growth retardation|
|Journal or Publication Title:||BMC Pediatrics|
|Publisher:||BioMed Central Ltd.|
|Official Date:||15 December 2010|
|Access rights to Published version:||Open Access|
|Funder:||Suomen Akatemia [Academy of Finland], Helsingin yliopisto [Helsinki University], European Science Foundation (ESF), Finland. Opetusministeriö [Ministry of Education], Emil Aaltonen Foundation, Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation, Ahokas Foundation, Yrjö Jahnssonin säätiö [Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation], Finnish Foundation for Pediatric Research, Germany. Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)|
|Grant number:||JUG 14 (BMBF)|
1. Strang-Karlsson S, Raikkonen K, Pesonen AK, Kajantie E, Paavonen EJ, Lahti J, Hovi P,
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