The church and Venetian political change in the later cinquecento
Lowry, Martin (1971) The church and Venetian political change in the later cinquecento. PhD thesis, University of Warwick.
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Official URL: http://webcat.warwick.ac.uk/record=b1733356~S15
Chapter I: The Interdict and Changes in Venetian Policy: Illusion and
Reality. Introduction: this study is a polemic, attacking the
connection usually drawn between the political reform of 1582-3 and the
hardening of Venetian attitudes towards the Curia up to 1606.
(i) Venetian support of the French Crown in the 1530s and '90s was
consistent with previous policy, and was dictated by changes in France
rather than in Venice. (ii) Venetian suspicion of Papal jurisdictional
claims long predates 1582: some cases show a milder attitude
after that reform than before. (iii) The tolerance allowed by Venice
to German Protestants did not alter substantially between 1560 and 1606.
The growth of the Greek community in the last quarter century can be
attributed to external circumstances rather than a more liberal Venetian
attitude. The features generally cited to show a change in the direction
of Venetian policies are not strong enough to prove it by themselves.
Chapter II: A Manifesto for Reform? The literary history of Paruta's
"Perfettiono della vita politica" appears to suggest a connection with
political change: but the ideas it contains are too ambiguous to have
had much partisan appeal. The division of opinions which the dialogue
seems to suggest is uncertain, as is its connection with contemporary
Chapter III: The Problem and the Reform. The Council of X and Zonta
cannot be described as "purely oligarchic" institutions, though their
composition and some of their actions in the pre-reform period excited
suspicion. The progress of the 1582-3 reform shows no sign of an
organised programme or a shared ideology: all practical proposals for
reform came from those who wished to preserve the Zonta, and even in
opposition to these proposals no consistency was shown. It is not
possible to identify a homogeneous group of "reformers".
Chapter IV: Reform or Reshuffle? The tenure of the main political
offices was in no way altered by the reform. The family interestgroups,
particularly Tiepolo-Soranzo, Foscarini-Barbaro-Zustiniani, and
Priuli, largely retained through the College the influence they had
previously exercised through the X and Zonta. Legislation suggests
fiercer competition for a smaller number of influential posts. The
ruling clique may have been narrowed by the reform.
Chapter V: Property and the Church-Economic Background. The most
obvious changes in Venetian policy towards the Church are in the economic
field. Growing numbers of nobles hold land from clerical proprietors.
Anxieties of Sarpi and Querini about ecclesiastical wealth are
born out by the evidence of the previous century: clerical property
was growing, but at an uncertain rate and to an unascertainable level.
The taxation system put most of it out of the reach of the secular
government at a time when ready money was badly needed.
Chapter VI: Property and the Church - from Principle to Policy.
In the 1560s and '70s, Venetian argument about clerical wealth and
privilege was either on an entirely abstract level, discussing canon
and civil law, or an entirely parochial level, discussing the vested
interests of individuals. Only in the later"1580s does the argument
from "state interest" appear. In 1591 famine forced Venice to assert
absolute control over property and produce in the Doninio, and this
became established policy in 1593-5. This, is the political attitude
which led to the property laws of the early XVIIth century, and so to
Conclusion: The Venetian governing group did not change materially,
but its attitudes did. This resulted more from pressure of economic
circumstances around 1591 than from an infusion of new ideology in 1582.
Appendix I: Lists of the Council of X (1572-192), Zonta (1572-1581),
Savii Grandi (1572-1602) and Savii di Terraferma (1572-1602).
Appendix II: Thirty leading senators, their political careers and..
connections, and their economic commitments..
Appendix III: "Alvise Michiel".
|Item Type:||Thesis or Dissertation (PhD)|
|Subjects:||D History General and Old World > DG Italy|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Venice (Italy) -- History -- 1508-1797, Venice (Italy) -- Politics and government -- 1508-1797, Venice (Italy) -- Church history -- 16th century, Church and state -- Italy -- Venice -- History -- 16th century|
|Institution:||University of Warwick|
|Theses Department:||Department of History|
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