Investigation into IGBT dV/dt during turn-off and its temperature dependence
Bryant, Angus T., Yang, Shaoyong, Mawby, P. A. (Philip A.), Xiang, Dawei, Ran, Li, Tavner, Peter and Palmer, Patrick R.. (2011) Investigation into IGBT dV/dt during turn-off and its temperature dependence. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Volume 26 (Number 10). pp. 3019-3031. ISSN 0885-8993Full text not available from this repository.
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2011.2125803
In many power converter applications, particularly those with high variable loads, such as traction and wind power, condition monitoring of the power semiconductor devices in the converter is considered desirable. Monitoring the device junction temperature in such converters is an essential part of this process. In this paper, a method for measuring the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) junction temperature using the collector voltage dV/dt at turn-OFF is outlined. A theoretical closed-form expression for the dV/dt at turn-OFF is derived, closely agreeing with experimental measurements. The role of dV/dt in dynamic avalanche in high-voltage IGBTs is also discussed. Finally, the implications of the temperature dependence of the dV/dt are discussed, including implementation of such a temperature measurement technique.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Subjects:||T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering|
|Divisions:||Faculty of Science > Engineering|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Insulated gate bipolar transistors -- Reliability, Power electronics, Electric current converters, Power semiconductors|
|Journal or Publication Title:||IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics|
|Page Range:||pp. 3019-3031|
|Access rights to Published version:||Restricted or Subscription Access|
|Funder:||Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), University of Cambridge. Schiff Foundation|
|Grant number:||EP/E0274$$$$4X/1 (EPSRC), EP/E026923/1 (EPSRC)|
|References:|| M. Bartram, I. von Bloh, and R. D. Doncker, “Doubly-fed-machines in wind-turbine systems: Is this application limiting the lifetime of IGBTfrequency- converters?” in Proc. PESC Conf. Rec., Aachen, Germany, Jun. 2004, pp. 2583–2587.  S. Watson, B. Xiang, W. Yang, P. Tavner, and C. Crabtree, “Condition monitoring of the power output of wind turbine generators usingwavelets,” IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 715–721, Sep. 2010.  D.McMillan and G. Ault, “Quantification of condition monitoring benefit for offshore wind turbines,” Wind Eng., vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 267–285, 2007.  A. Bryant, P. Mawby, P. Palmer, E. Santi, and J. Hudgins, “Exploration of power device reliability using compact device models and fast electrothermal simulation,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 894–903, May 2008.  D. Hirschmann, D. Tissen, S. Schr¨oder, and R. D. Doncker, “Reliability prediction for inverters in hybrid electrical vehicles,” presented at the PESC Conf. Rec., Jeju, South Korea, Jun. 2006.  L. Wei, J. McGuire, and R. Lukaszewski, “Analysis of PWM frequency control to improve the lifetime of PWM inverter,” presented at the ECCE Conf. Rec., San Jose, CA, Sep. 2009.  S. Yang, A. Bryant, P. Mawby, D. Xiang, L. Ran, and P. Tavner, “An industry-based survey of reliability in power electronic converters,” presented at the ECCE Conf. Rec., San Jose, CA, Sep. 2009.  S. Yang, D. Xiang, A. Bryant, P. Mawby, L. Ran, and P. Tavner, “Condition monitoring for device reliability in power electronic converters—A review,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 1441–1451, May 2011.  N. Patil, J. Celaya, D. Das, K. Goebel, andM. Pecht, “Precursor parameter identification for insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) prognostics,” IEEE Trans. Reliabil., vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 271–276, Jun. 2009.  M. Musallam and C. Johnson, “Real-time compact thermal models for health management of power electronics,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1416–1425, Jun. 2010.  M. Ciappa, F. Carbognani, P. Cova, and W. Fichtner, “A novel thermomechanics-based lifetime predictionmodel for cycle fatigue failure mechanisms in power semiconductors,” Microelectron. Reliabil., vol. 42, pp. 1653–1658, 2002.  U. Scheuermann, “Reliability of pressure contacted intelligent integrated power modules,” presented at the ISPSD Conf. Rec., Santa Fe, NM, Jun. 2002.  Y.-S. Kim and S.-K. Sul, “On-line estimation of IGBT junction temperature using on-state voltage drop,” in Proc. IAS Conf. Rec., St Louis, MO, Oct. 1998, pp. 853–859.  D. Barlini, M. Ciappa, A. Castellazzi, M. Mermet-Guyennet, and W. Fichtner, “New technique for the measurement of the static and of the transient junction temperature in IGBT devices under operating conditions,” Microelectron. Reliabil., vol. 46, pp. 1772–1777, 2006.  D. Barlini, M. Ciappa, M. Mermet-Guyennet, and W. Fichtner, “Measurement of the transient junction temperature in MOSFET devices under operating conditions,” Microelectron. Reliabil., vol. 47, pp. 1707–1712, 2007.  H. Chen, V. Pickert, D. Atkinson, and L. Pritchard, “On-linemonitoring of theMOSFET device junction temperature by computation of the threshold voltage,” in Proc. PEMD Conf. Rec., Dublin, Fingal, Ireland, Apr. 2006, pp. 440–444.  A. Ammous, B. Allard, and H. Morel, “Transient temperature measurements and modeling of IGBTs under short circuit,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 12–25, Jan. 1998.  M. Musallam, P. Acarnley, C. Johnson, L. Pritchard, and V. Pickert, “Estimation and control of power electronic device temperature during operation with variable conducting current,” IET Circuits, Devices Syst., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 111–116, Apr. 2007.  M. Musallam, C. Johnson, C. Yin, C. Bailey, and M. Mermet-Guyennet, “Real-time life consumption power modules prognosis using on-line rainflow algorithm in metro applications,” in Proc. ECCE Conf. Rec., Atlanta, GA, Sep. 2010, pp. 970–977.  R. Kr¨ummer, T. Reimann, G. Berger, J. Petzoldt, and L. Lorenz, “On-line calculation of the chip temperature of power modules in voltage source converters using the microcontroller,” presented at the EPE Conf. Rec., Lausanne, Switzerland, 1999.  D. Xiang, L. Ran, P. Tavner, S. Yang, A. Bryant, and P. Mawby, “Condition monitoring solder fatigue in a power module by inverter harmonic identification,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., to be published.  A. Hefner and D. Blackburn, “An analytical model for the steady-state and transient characteristics of the power insulated-gate bipolar transistor,” Solid-State Electron., vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1513–1532, 1988.  F. Calmon, J. Chante, B. Reymond, and A. Senes, “Analysis of the IGBT dv/dt in hard switching mode,” in Proc. EPE Conf. Rec., Seville, 1995, vol. 1, pp. 234–239.  A. Ramamurthy, S. Sawant, and B. Baliga, “Modeling the dV/dt of the IGBT during inductive turn off,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 601–606, Jul. 1999.  W. Feiler, W. Gerlach, and U. Wiese, “On the turn-off behaviour of the NPT-IGBT under clamped inductive loads,” Solid-State Electron., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 59–67, 1996.  ATLAS, Silvaco’s TCAD software. (June 2011). [Online]. Available: http://www.silvaco.com/products/device_simulation/atlas.html  A. Bryant, Y.Wang, S. Finney, T.-C. Lim, and P. Palmer, “Numerical optimization of an active voltage controller for high-power IGBT converters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 374–383, Mar. 2007.  P. Jeannin, D. Frey, and J. Schanen, “Sizing method of external capacitors for series association of insulated gate components,” presented at the EPE Conf. Rec., Graz, Austria, Sep. 2001.  P. Palmer, E. Santi, J. Hudgins, X. Kang, J. Joyce, and P. Eng, “Circuit simulator models for the diode and IGBT with full temperature dependent features,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1220–1229, Sep. 2003.  A. Bryant, X. Kang, E. Santi, P. Palmer, and J. Hudgins, “Two-step parameter extraction procedure with formal optimization for physics-based circuit simulator IGBT and PIN diode models,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 295–309, Mar. 2006.  C. Jacoboni, C. Canali, G. Otiaviani, and A. A. Quaranta, “A review of some charge transport properties of silicon,” Solid-State Electron., vol. 20, pp. 77–89, 1977.  L. Lu,A.Bryant, E. Santi, J. Hudgins, and P. Palmer, “Physics-based model of planar-gate IGBT including MOS side two-dimensional effects,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 2556–2567, Nov. 2010.  W. Feiler, W. Gerlach, and U. Wiese, “Two-dimensional analytical models of the carrier distribution in the on-state of the IGBT,” Solid-State Electron., vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 1781–1790, 1995.  H. Schlangenotto and W. Gerlach, “On the effective carrier lifetime in p-s-n rectifiers at high injection levels,” Solid-State Electron., vol. 12, pp. 267–275, 1969.  A. Zekry, “The dependence of diffusion length, lifetime and emitter Gummel number on temperature and doping,” Archiv f¨ur Elektrotechnik, vol. 75, pp. 147–154, 1992.  P. Rose, D. Silber, A. Porst, and F. Pfirsch, “Investigations on the stability of dynamic avalanche in IGBTs,” in Proc. ISPSD Conf. Rec., Santa Fe, NM, Jun. 2002, pp. 165–168.  T. Ogura, H. Ninomiya, K. Sugiyama, and T. Inoue, “Turn-off switching analysis considering dynamic avalanche effect for low turn-off loss highvolage IGBTs,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 629–635, Apr. 2004.  M. Rahimo, A. Kopta, S. Eicher, U. Schlapbach, and S. Linder, “Switching-self-clamping-mode “SSCM”, a breakthrough in SOA performance for high voltage IGBTs and diodes,” in Proc. ISPSD Conf. Rec., Kitakyushu, May 2004, pp. 437–440.  A. Hefner, “An improved understanding for the transient operation of the power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT),” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 459–468, Oct. 1990.  A. Githiari, “The design of semiconductor switches for high voltage applications,” Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K., 1996.  R. Kraus, P. T¨urkes, and J. Sigg, “Physics-based models of power semiconductor devices for the circuit simulator SPICE,” in Proc. PESC Conf. Rec., Fukuoka, Japan, 1998, pp. 1726–1731.  P. Palmer and J. Joyce, “Circuit analysis of active mode parasitic oscillations in IGBT modules,” IEE Proc.—Circuits Devices Syst., vol. 150, no. 2, pp. 85–91, Apr. 2003.  A. Githiari and P. Palmer, “Analysis of IGBT modules in the series connection,” IEE Proc.—Circuits Devices Syst., vol. 145, no. 5, pp. 354–360, Oct. 1998.  A. Hefner, “An investigation of the drive circuit requirements for the power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT),” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 208–219, Apr. 1991.  A. Herlet, “The forward characteristic of silicon power rectifiers at high current densities,” Solid-State Electron., vol. 11, pp. 717–742, 1968.  H. Schlangenotto and H. Maeder, “Spatial composition and injection dependence of recombination in silicon power device structures,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. ED-26, no. 3, pp. 191–200, Mar. 1979.  D. Green, K. Vershinin,M. Sweet, and E. Narayanan, “Anode engineering for the insulated gate bipolar transistor - a comparative review,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 1857–1866, Sep. 2007.  R. Dutton and Z. Yu, Technology CAD: Computer Simulation of IC Processes and Devices. Boston, MA: Kluwer, 1993.  A. Hefner, “Adynamic electro-thermalmodel for the IGBT,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 394–405, Mar. 1994.  L. Mussard, P. Tounsi, P. Austin, G. Bonnet, J.-M. Dorkel, and J. Saiz, “Power component models with thermally dependent parameters for circuit simulator,” presented at the EPE Conf. Rec., Toulouse, France, Sep. 2003.|
Actions (login required)