Factors controlling stripping voltammetry of lead at polycrystalline boron doped diamond electrodes : new insights from high-resolution microscopy
Hutton, Laura A., Newton, Mark E., Unwin, Patrick R. and Macpherson, Julie V.. (2011) Factors controlling stripping voltammetry of lead at polycrystalline boron doped diamond electrodes : new insights from high-resolution microscopy. Analytical Chemistry, Vol.83 (No.3). pp. 735-745. ISSN 0003-2700Full text not available from this repository.
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac101626s
We report wide-ranging studies to elucidate the factors and issues controlling stripping voltammetry of metal ions on solid electrodes using the well-known Pb/Pb(2+) couple on polycrystalline boron doped diamond (pBDD). as an exemplar system. Notably, high-resolution microscopy techniques have revealed new insights into the features observed in differential pule anodic stripping voltammetry (DPV-ASV) which provide a deeper understanding of how best to utilize this technique. DPV-ASV was employed in an impinging wall-jet configuration to detect Pb(2+) in the nanomolar to micromolar concentration range at a pBDD macrodisk electrode. The deposition process was driven to produce a grain-independent homogeneous distribution of Pb nanoparticles (NPs) on the electrode surface; this resulted in the observation of narrow stripping peaks. Lower calibration gradients of current or charge versus concentration were found for the low concentrations, correlating with a lower than expected (from consideration of the simple convective-diffusive nature of the deposition process) amount of Pb deposited on the surface. This was attributed to the complex nature of nucleation and growth at solid surfaces in this concentration regime, complicating mass transport. Furthermore, a clear shift negative in the stripping peak potential with decreasing concentration was seen correlating with a change in the size of the deposited NP, suggesting an NP size-dependent redox potential for the Pb/Pb(2+) couple. At high concentrations a nonlinear response was observed, with less Pb detected than expected, in addition to the observation of a second stripping peak. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed the second peak to be due to a change in deposition morphology from isolated NPs to grain-independent heterogeneous structures comprising both thin films and NPs; the second peak is associated with stripping from the thin-film structures. ARIA also revealed a substantial amount of Pb remaining on the surface after stripping at high concentration, explaining the nonlinear relationship between stripping peak current (or charge) and concentration. Finally, the use of an in situ cleaning procedure between each measurement was advocated to ensure a clean Pb-free surface (verified by AFM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis) between each run. The studies herein highlight important and complex physicochemical processes involved in the electroanalysis of heavy metals at solid electrodes, such as pBDD, that need to be accounted for when using stripping voltammetry methods.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Subjects:||Q Science > QC Physics
Q Science > QD Chemistry
|Divisions:||Faculty of Science > Chemistry
Faculty of Science > Physics
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Voltammetry, Diamonds -- Electric properties, Boron, Lead, Electrochemical analysis|
|Journal or Publication Title:||Analytical Chemistry|
|Publisher:||American Chemical Society|
|Page Range:||pp. 735-745|
|Funder:||Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)|
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