Big men feeling small : childhood bullying experience, muscle dysmorphia and other mental health problems in bodybuilders
Wolke, Dieter and Sapouna, Maria. (2008) Big men feeling small : childhood bullying experience, muscle dysmorphia and other mental health problems in bodybuilders. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, Vol.9 (No.5). pp. 595-694. ISSN 1469-0292
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.10.002
Objectives: Muscle dysmorphia (MD) is a preoccupation with the idea that one’s body is insufficiently lean and muscular
and considered as a body image disorder in men. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of MD with childhood
bullying victimization experiences and mental health problems in a nonclinical sample of male bodybuilders.
Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 100 male bodybuilders.
Methods: Participants completed a questionnaire battery consisting of the muscle dysmorphic inventory (MDI), and
scales on childhood bullying victimization, self-esteem, and psychological problems including depression, anxiety and
obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms.
Results: High scores on the MDI and bullying victimization in childhood predicted global psychopathology and low self-esteem. Psychological functioning and self-esteem were most strongly adversely affected if the men were victims of bullying and scored high on the MDI (significant moderation effect). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses furthermore found an indirect linkage of victimization with global psychopathology and self-esteem via MDI (mediation effect).
Conclusions: Childhood bullying victimization and MD are strongly associated with concurrent anxiety, depressive and
obsessive-compulsive symptoms and low self-esteem.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Subjects:||H Social Sciences > HN Social history and conditions. Social problems. Social reform
B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
|Divisions:||Faculty of Science > Psychology|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Bullying, Body image disturbance, Psychopathology, Self-esteem|
|Journal or Publication Title:||Psychology of Sport and Exercise|
|Official Date:||17 September 2008|
|Page Range:||pp. 595-694|
|Access rights to Published version:||Open Access|
Aiken, L. S. and West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: testing and interpreting interactions. London: Sage.
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