Photoelectron diffraction determination of adsorbate structures
Kreikemeyer Lorenzo, D. (2011) Photoelectron diffraction determination of adsorbate structures. PhD thesis, University of Warwick.
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Scanned-energy mode photoelectron diffraction (PhD) is a well-known method to
determine quantitatively the local structure of adsorbates at surfaces. In this thesis, it has
been employed to determine the adsorption site of a selection of molecules on surfaces.
The adsorption on Cu(110), of methoxy (CH3O), an intermediate in the catalytic decomposition
of methanol (CH3OH), has been studied. O 1s PhD spectra show the strongest
modulation at 30° and 40° polar emission angles, both in the [1 1 0] azimuth, which is
consistent with a bridge position adsorption site in the [1 1 0] azimuth. The subsequent
analysis, as well as parallel DFT studies, confirms two bridge adsorption sites, with different
bond lengths to the underneath copper atoms. A tilt of the molecules of 37° in the [1 1 0]
azimuth is also observed, with the carbon atoms pointing in opposite directions for every
adsorption site. This tilt creates a zig-zag model, which fits with an old STM  study.
Formate (HCOO), a surface intermediate of the catalytic decomposition of formic
acid (HCOOH), has been studied on two different faces of copper, Cu(110) and Cu(111).
Although the adsorption sites obtained for both surfaces is similar, namely a short-bridge
site slightly off atop, a significant difference of = 0.1 Å in the copper-oxygen bond lengths
is found, being 1.99 Å for Cu(111) and 1.90 Å for Cu(110).
In this thesis, it is demonstrated that it is possible, though very challenging, to
perform PhD successfully under higher pressures. Methanol oxidation on Cu(110) has been
studied under reaction conditions. At temperatures below = 450 K, the adsorption sites of
methoxy and formate, the most important surface intermediates of this reaction, have been
proved to be similar as in the previous studies performed in ultra high vacuum.
A recent investigation of two different organic molecules, azobenzene (C12H10N2)
and aniline (C6H7N), on rutile TiO2(110) and anatase TiO2(101) surfaces with scanning
tunneling microscopy (STM)  indicates that both molecules lead the formation of the
same superstructure, believed to be of a common species, phenyl imide (C6H5N). PhD has
been exploited to determine the local adsorption site of adsorbed species formed by both
molecules on rutile TiO2(110). N 1s photoelectron diffraction data are almost identical for
both molecules, providing further support for a common surface species with the same, or
a closely similar. Additional NEXAFS results support these results, implying that the local
adsorption site of azobenzene and aniline is indeed the same. PhD results, which show the
largest modulation amplitude at normal emission, suggests that the phenyl imide bonds via
the N atoms atop a five-fold coordinated surface Ti atom, with the molecular plane tilted
with respect to the surface normal, with a N-Ti bond length of 1.77 Å.
 F. Leibsle, S. Francis, S.Haq, and M. Bowker, Aspects of formaldehyde synthesis
on Cu(110) as studied by STM, Surf. Sci. 318, 46 (1994).
 S.-C. Li, and U. Diebold, Reactivity of TiO2 rutile and anatase surfaces toward
nitroaromatics, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 64 (2010).
|Item Type:||Thesis or Dissertation (PhD)|
|Subjects:||Q Science > QC Physics|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Surfaces (Physics), Adsorption|
|Official Date:||December 2011|
|Institution:||University of Warwick|
|Theses Department:||Department of Physics|
|Supervisor(s)/Advisor:||Woodruff, D. P.|
|Extent:||xx, 116 leaves : ill., charts|
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