Investigating whether adverse prenatal and perinatal events are associated with non-clinical psychotic symptoms at age 12 years in the ALSPAC birth cohort
Zammit, Stanley, Odd, D., Horwood, Jeremy, Thompson, Andrew, Dr., Thomas, Kate, 1972-, Menezes, Paulo, Gunnell, David, Hollis, Chris, Wolke, Dieter, Lewis, Glyn and Harrison, Glynn. (2009) Investigating whether adverse prenatal and perinatal events are associated with non-clinical psychotic symptoms at age 12 years in the ALSPAC birth cohort. Psychological Medicine, Vol.39 (No.9). pp. 1457-1467. ISSN 0033-2917
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291708005126
Background. Non-clinical psychosis-like symptoms (PLIKS) occur in about 15% of the population. It is not clear
whether adverse events during early development alter the risk of developing PLIKS. We aimed to examine whether
maternal infection, diabetes or pre-eclampsia during pregnancy, gestational age, perinatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation
or 5-min Apgar score were associated with development of psychotic symptoms during early adolescence.
Method. A longitudinal study of 6356 12-year-old adolescents who completed a semi-structured interview for
psychotic symptoms in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Prenatal and
perinatal data were obtained from obstetric records and maternal questionnaires completed during pregnancy.
Results. The presence of definite psychotic symptoms was associated with maternal infection during pregnancy
[adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11–1.86, p=0.006], maternal diabetes (adjusted OR 3.43,
95% CI 1.14–10.36, p=0.029), need for resuscitation (adjusted OR 1.50, 95% CI 0.97–2.31, p=0.065) and 5-min Apgar
score (adjusted OR per unit decrease 1.30, 95% CI 1.12–1.50, p<0.001). None of these associations were mediated by
childhood IQ score. Most associations persisted, but were less strong, when including suspected symptoms as part of
the outcome. There was no association between PLIKS and gestational age or pre-eclampsia.
Conclusions. Adverse events during early development may lead to an increased risk of developing PLIKS.
Although the status of PLIKS in relation to clinical disorders such as schizophrenia is not clear, the similarity
between these results and findings reported for schizophrenia indicates that future studies of PLIKS may help us to
understand how psychotic experiences and clinical disorders develop throughout the life-course.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Subjects:||B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
R Medicine > RJ Pediatrics
|Divisions:||Faculty of Science > Psychology
Faculty of Medicine > Warwick Medical School
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Psychoses in adolescence, Prenatal influences, Neonatology|
|Journal or Publication Title:||Psychological Medicine|
|Publisher:||Cambridge University Press|
|Page Range:||pp. 1457-1467|
|Access rights to Published version:||Open Access|
|Funder:||Wellcome Trust (London, England), National Assembly for Wales|
|Grant number:||No GR072043MA (Wellcome),|
ACOG (2006). ACOG Committee Opinion: The Apgar score. Obstetrics & Gynecology 107(5), 1209-1212.
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