Predictors of positive growth after traumatic brain injury : a longitudinal study
Hawley, Carol and Joseph, Stephen. (2008) Predictors of positive growth after traumatic brain injury : a longitudinal study. Brain Injury, Vol.22 (No.5). pp. 427-435. ISSN 0269-9052
WRAP_hawley_tbin_2007_0232_complete_text_accepted_170308x.pdf - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
Restricted to Repository staff only
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699050802064607
Primary objective: To investigate long-term positive psychological growth in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to relate growth to injury characteristics and early outcomes.
Research design: Longitudinal study.
Method and Procedure: Long-term follow-up of a group of TBI survivors recruited between 1991-1995. In 2004, 240 of the 563 original participants were invited to take
part in a follow-up study. At follow-up, survivors completed the Positive Changes in
Outlook Questionnaire (CiOP) along with a structured interview/questionnaire which
permitted a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) score to be assigned.
Results: 165 TBI survivors completed both questionnaire and CiOP.
103(62%) participants had suffered severe TBI, 24(15%) moderate and 38(23%)
mild. Mean length of follow-up was 11.5 years post-injury (range 9-25 years). On
the GOSE at follow-up, 43(26%) had severe disability; 72(44%) moderate disability;
and 50(30%) good recovery. Scores on the CiOP indicated positive psychological
growth in over half of the sample, as evidenced by agreement with items such as “I
don’t take life for granted anymore” and “I value my relationships much more now”.
CiOP total scores did not correlate with any injury or early outcome variables.
However, at long-term follow-up there was a negative correlation between positive
growth and anxiety and depression.
Conclusion: Survivors of mild, moderate and severe TBI showed evidence of long-term positive
changes in outlook.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Subjects:||R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry|
|Divisions:||Faculty of Medicine > Warwick Medical School > Mental Health and Wellbeing
Faculty of Medicine > Warwick Medical School
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Brain -- Wounds and injuries, Head -- Wounds and injuries, Outcome assessment (Medical care)|
|Journal or Publication Title:||Brain Injury|
|Publisher:||Taylor and Francis|
|Page Range:||pp. 427-435|
|Access rights to Published version:||Open Access|
Version accepted by publisher (post-print, after peer review, before copy-editing)
Brooks, D.N., Campsie, L., Symington, C., Beattie, A., McKinlay, W. (1986). The five-year outcome of severe blunt head injury: A relative's view. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 49, pp. 764-770.
Brooks, N., Campsie, L., Symington, C., Beattie, A., McKinley, W. (1987). The effects of severe head injury on patients and relatives within 7 years of injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 2(3), pp. 1-13.
Lewin, W., Marshall, T.F., Roberts, A.H. (1979). Long term outcome after severe head injury. British Medical Journal, 2, p.1533.
Stilwell, P., Stilwell, J., Hawley, C., Davies, C. (1999). The national traumatic brain injury study: Assessing outcomes across settings. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 9(3/4), pp. 277-293.
Whitnall, L., McMillan, T.M., Murray, G.D., Teasdale, G.M. (2006). Disability in young people and adults after head injury: 5-7 year follow up of a prospective cohort study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 77, pp. 640-645.
Oddy, M., Coughlan, T., Tyerman, A., Jenkins, D. (1985). Social adjustment after closed head injury: a further follow-up seven years after injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 48, pp. 564-568.
Conzen, M., Ebel, H., Swart, E., Skreczek, W., Dette, M., Oppel, F. (1992). Long-term neuropsychological outcome after severe head injury with good recovery. Brain Injury, 6(1), pp. 45-52.
Olver, J.H., Ponsford, J.L., Curran, C.A. (1996). Outcome following traumatic brain injury: a comparison between 2 and 5 years after injury. Brain Injury, 10(11), pp. 841-848.
Thomsen, I.V. (1984). Late outcome of very severe blunt head trauma: a 10-15 year second follow-up. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 47, pp. 260-268.
Thomsen, I.V. (1992). Late psychosocial outcome in severe traumatic brain injury. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine (Supplement) 26, pp. 142-152.
Wood, R.L., Rutterford, N.A. (2006). Psychosocial adjustment 17 years after severe brain injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 77, pp. 71-73.
Adams, N. (1996). Positive outcomes in families following traumatic brain injury. Australian and New Zealand Family Therapy, 17, pp. 75-84.
McGrath, J. (2004). Beyond restoration to transformation: Positive outcomes in the rehabilitation of acquired brain injury. Clinical Rehabilitation, 18, pp. 767-775.
Collicutt McGrath, J. (2008). Recovery from brain injury and positive rehabilitation practice. In: Joseph S., Linley P.A., eds. Trauma, recovery, and growth: positive psychological perspectives on posttraumatic stress. Hoboken: Wiley, pp 259-274.
McGrath, J.C., Linley, P.A. (2006). Post-traumatic growth in acquired brain injury. A preliminary small scale study. Brain Injury, 20(7), pp. 767-773.
Tedeschi, R., Calhoun, L. (1996). The posttraumatic growth inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, pp. 455-471.
Powell, T., Ekin-Wood, A., Collin, C. (2007). Post-traumatic growth after head injury: a long-term follow-up. Brain Injury, 21, pp. 31-38.
Linley, P.A., Joseph, S. (2004). Positive change following trauma and adversity: A review. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 17, pp. 11-21.
Zigmond, A.S., Snaith, R.P. (1983). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67, pp. 361-370.
Steger, M.F., Kashdan, T.B., Sullivan, B.A., Lorentz, D. (in press) Understanding the search for meaning in life: Personality, cognitive style, and the dynamic between seeking and experiencing meaning. Journal of Personality.
Hawley, C.A., Stilwell, J., Davies, C., Stilwell, P. (2000). A National Multicentre Study of Post-Acute Rehabilitation for Adults After Traumatic Brain Injury. British Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 7(3), pp. 116-122.
Teasdale, G., Jennett, B. (1974). Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness: a practical scale. Lancet, 2, pp. 81-83.
Medical Disability Society. (1988). The Management of Traumatic Brain Injury. London: Royal College of Physicians.
Jennett, B., Bond, M. (1975). Assessment of outcome after severe brain damage. A practical scale. Lancet, 1, pp. 480-484.
Jennett, B., Snoek, J., Bond, M.R., Brooks, D.N. (1981). Disability after severe head injury: observations on the use of the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 44, pp. 285-293.
Hall, K., Hamilton, B.N., Gordon, W.A., Zasler, N.D. (1993). Characteristics and comparison of functional assessment indices: Disability Rating Scale, Functional Independence Measure and Functional Assessment Measure. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 8, pp. 60-74.
World Health Organisation (1980). The International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps: a manual of classification relating to the consequences of disease. Geneva: World Health Organisation, p. 42.
Joseph, S., Williams, R., Yule, W. (1993). Changes in outlook following disaster: Preliminary development of a measure to assess positive and negative responses. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 6, pp. 271-279.
Joseph, S., Linley, P.A., Andrews, L., Harris, G., Howle, B., Woodward, C., Shevlin, M. (2005). Assessing positive and negative changes in the aftermath of adversity: Psychometric evaluation of the Changes in Outlook Questionnaire. Psychological Assessment, 17, pp. 70-80.
Prigatano, G.P., Fordyce, D.J. (1986). Cognitive dysfunction and psychosocial adjustment after brain injury. In: Prigatano, G.P., Fordyce, D.J., Zeiner, H.K., Roueche, J.R., Pepping, M., Wood, B.C., eds. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation After Brain Injury. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, pp 1-17.
Masson, F., Maurette, P., Salmi, L.R., Dartigues, J-F., Vecsey, J., Destaillats, J-M., Erny, P. (1996). Prevalence of impairments 5 years after a head injury, and their relationship with disabilities and outcome. Brain Injury, 10(7), pp. 487-497.
Actions (login required)
Downloads per month over past year