Crying and feeding problems in infancy and cognitive outcome in preschool children born at risk : a prospective population study
Wolke, Dieter, Schmid, Gabriele, Schreier, Andrea and Meyer, Renate. (2009) Crying and feeding problems in infancy and cognitive outcome in preschool children born at risk : a prospective population study. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Vol.30 (No.3). pp. 226-238. ISSN 0196-206X
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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0b013e3181a85973
Objective: To investigate whether regulatory problems, i.e., crying and feeding problems in infants > 3 months of age, predict cognitive outcome in preschool children born at risk even when controlled for confounding factors.
Methods: A prospective longitudinal study of children born in a geographically defined area in Germany. N = 4427 children of 6705 eligible survivors (66%) participated at all four assessment points (neonatal, 5, 20, and 56 months of age). Excessive crying and feeding problems were measured at 5 months. Mental development was assessed with the Griffiths Scale at 20 months, and cognitive assessments were conducted at 56 months. Neonatal complications, neurological, and psychosocial factors were controlled as confounders in structural equation modeling and analyses of variance.
Results: One in five infants suffered from single crying or feeding problems, and 2% had multiple regulatory problems, i.e., combined crying and feeding problems at 5 months. In girls, regulatory problems were directly predictive of lower cognition at 56 months, even when controlled for confounders, whereas in boys, the influence on cognition at 56 months was mediated by low mental development at 20 months. Both in boys and girls, shortened gestational age, neonatal neurological complications, and poor parent-infant relationship were predictive of regulatory problems at 5 months and lower cognition at 56 months.
Conclusion: Regulatory problems in infancy have a small but significant adverse effect on cognitive development.
|Item Type:||Journal Article|
|Subjects:||B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
R Medicine > RJ Pediatrics
|Divisions:||Faculty of Science > Psychology|
|Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH):||Crying in infants, Ingestion disorders in infants, Cognition in children, Child development -- Research|
|Journal or Publication Title:||Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics|
|Publisher:||Lippincott Williams & Wilkins|
|Official Date:||June 2009|
|Page Range:||pp. 226-238|
|Access rights to Published version:||Open Access|
|Funder:||Germany. Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF), Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung [Swiss National Science Foundation] (SNSF)|
|Grant number:||PKE24 (BMBF), JUG14 (01EP9504) (BMBF), 51A240-104890 (SNSF)|
1. Task Force on Research Diagnostic Criteria. Research diagnostic criteria for infants and preschool children: The process and empirical support. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003;42:1504-1512.
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